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Arthurian Interpretations 15.2-16.1, 1.1-4.2;

Quondam et Futurus: A Journal of Arthurian Interpretations 1.1-3.4

Arthuriana 4.1-present



Gamble, Giles Y. 'Power Play: Elizabeth I and The Misfortunes of Arthur.' QetF 1.2 (Summer1991): 59-69.


Abstract: In its rhetoric, The Misfortunes of Arthur offers the queen a choice which the authors hope will be no choice at all. On the one hand she is shown an Arthur whose inability to choose between his son and kingdom until too late caused the destruction of both. On the other, she is shown an Arthur who conquered Rome, whose death was never witnessed, and who is expected to return as the savior of his nation. The question posed to Elizabeth is which Arthur will she be. If there was no official reaction to The Misfortunes of Arthur, it was probably due to Elizabeth 's political savvy, or the power of the Inns of Court, or, most probably, both. (GYG)

Gaylord, Alan T. Rev. of From Pearl to Gawain. Forme and Fynisment. By Robert J. Blanch and Julian N. Wasserman. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 143-46.

-------. Rev. of The Mabinogi. A Book of Essays. Ed. C.W. Sullivan III. Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 67-70.

-------. Rev. of Robin Hood. A Cinematic History of the English Outlaw and His Scottish Counterparts. By Scott Allen Nollen. Arthuriana 10.3 (Fall 2000): 116-19.

-------."Back from the Queste: Malory’s Launcelot Enrages Gwenyvere." Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 78-83.

Abstract: This essay takes a close look at Launcelot’s disastrous speech in defense of his avoidance of Gwenyvere for fear of scandal. (AG)

George, Edward V . Rev. of Elizabeth Jane Weston: Collected Writings. Ed. Donald Cheney and Brenda M. Hosington, with the assistance of D.K.Money. Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 100-101.

George, Michael W. "Arthuriana as Living Tradition." Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 14-18.

Abstract: Incorporating popular culture and creative options for assignments makes undergraduate students aware of Arthuriana as a living tradition. (MWG)

Georgiana, Linda. Rev. of Courtly Desire and Medieval Homophobia: The Legitimation of Sexual Pleasure in Cleanness and Its Contexts. By Elizabeth B. Keiser. Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 150-51.

Gibson, Lee. Rev. of The Return of King Arthur: The Legend through Victorian Eyes. By Debra N. Mancoff. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 154-55.

Gibson, Angela. 'Malory's Reformulation of Shame.' Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001): 64-76.

Abstract: In the Morte Darthur, Malory suggests that revealing private acts, even those that may themselves be dishonorable according to a shame culture, can be more destructive than the acts themselves. Such private acts are therefore not undervalued but esteemed and protected. (AG)

Gilmore, Gloria Thomas. 'Le Roman de Silence: Allegory in Ruin or Womb of Irony?Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 111-23.

Abstract: Merlin and Silence wage a final metaphoric / metonymic battle in the evolution of allegory: Merlin 's laughter exiles him to perpetual self-generation, as women are restored to the reign of Silence. (GTG)

Glowka, Arthur Wayne. 'Malory 's Sense of Humor.' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 39-46.

Abstract: A useful approach for students of Malory is to examine what Malory himself seems to indicate as funny and then to characterize those instances. This kind of examination gives a portrait of Malory the humorist, showing what Malory may have considered as acceptable humor. His knights and ladies laugh at slapstick, unknightly comments, the recognition of puns and witticisms. He has established a joker in Dinadan, who becomes a vehicle for realistic comment on the dangers and discomforts of knighthood. He has the morally reprehensible mocked by laughter, but he also humanizes the portraits of Arthur and Launcelot by including them in his jokes. Malory even has a taste for irony, showing humor as ultimately a function of perspective. Through humor Malory brings us closer to the characters of his fictional world, so that when it collapses its tragedy strikes us in a personal way. (MLD)

Good, Jonathan. Rev. of St George’s Chapel Windsor in the Fourteenth Century. ed. Nigel Saul. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 80-83.

Goodrich, Peter H. Rev. of The Grail: A Casebook. Arthurian Characters and Themes Vol. 5. By Dhira B. Mahoney. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 121-23.

-------. 'The Erotic Merlin. 'Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 94-115.

Abstract: The figure of Merlin manifests exotic characteristics in the conventions of his madness, conception, and birth, and his actions as seer, tryst-maker, and lover. He is both a catylst and victim of eros. (PG)

------. Rev. of Inside Merlin 's Cave: A Cornish Arthurian Reader 1000-2000 by Amy Hale, Alan M. Kent, and Tim Saunders, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 132-133.

------. Rev. of The Return of King Arthur: Finishing the Quest for Wholeness. By Diana Durham. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 82-83.

-------. 'Saracens and Islamic Alterity in Malory's Le Morte Darthur. 'Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 10-28.

Abstract: Malory’s treatment of Saracens depends upon his crusading-era literary sources and his personal awareness of Ottoman Turk incursions into Europe. Except for Palomides, his Saracens develop typical orientalist functions. (PHG)

------. Rev. of Gawain: A Casebook. By Raymond H. Thompson and Keith Busby, eds. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 110-113.

------. Rev. of Medieval Literature and Culture. By Andrew Galloway, Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 121.

------. Rev. of Merlin: Knowledge and Power through the Ages. By Stephen Knight. Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010):127-28.

Gowans, Linda. Rev. of The Story of King Arthur in Cornwall: A Tourist 's Guide To The Facts
About King Arthur
 by L.J. Dickinson, King Arthur in Cornwall Factfile by W. Howship Dickinson, King Arthur in Cornwall by Henry Jenner, Tristan & Iseult: A Cornish Romance by Henry Jenner and Thurstan Peter, King Arthur 's Country: A Guide To The Arthurian Sites of Cornwall by F.J. Snell, and Arthur 's Lost Land: The Legend Sites of North Cornwall by J. Cuming Walters. Arthuriana 12.2 (Summer 2002): 152-154.

------. Rev. of Bewnans Ke/The Life of St Kea: A critical edition with translation. Graham Thomas and Nicholas Williams, ed. and trans., Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 116-120.

Goyne, Jo. 'Parataxis and Causality in the Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake.' QetF 2.4 (Winter 1992): 36-48.

Abstract: In 'A Noble Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake, ' a small gem of the paratactic style, its author, Sir Thomas Malory, skillfully employs parataxis to provide his readers not only with a useful lesson in how to read his characteristic style, but also with valuable information necessary to our understanding of the work as a whole. A close examination of the beginning paragraphs of book 6 is particularly instructive in how Malory 's distinctive style opens the remainder of the tale to us. (JG)

-------. 'Arthurian Wonder Women: The Tred of Olwen. ' Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 5-10.

Abstract: Though introduced as a curse placed upon her suitor, Olwen, the most beautiful giant 's daughter in Welsh folklore, brings to this tale wisdom and an aura of enchantment worthy of the most exemplary Arthurian heroines. (JG)

Gravlee, Cynthia A. Rev. of Arthurian Romances. Chrétien de Troyes. Ed. and trans. William W. Kibler. Erec and Enide. Trans. Carleton W. Carroll. QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 87-88.

Greenburg, Brad. Rev. of For Her Good Estate: The Life of Elizabeth de Burgh. Ed. Frances A. Underhill. Arthuriana 13.3 (Fall 2003): 127-128.

------. Rev. of The Wakefield Master 's Dramatic Art: A Drama of Spiritual Understanding. Liam O. Purdon. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 104-106.

Greene, Wendy Tibbets. 'Malory 's Merlin: An Ambiguous Magician? ' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 56-63.

Abstract: Merlin offers prophecy and reproach. At times he intervenes in the action, and at other times he fails to appear when he is needed. Sometimes he elicits fear or amazement; he certainly elicits too little affection and admiration. In strength and wisdom, Merlin regresses as the 'hoole book ' progresses. Physically, Merlin degenerates from rapid-moving, effective enchanter to helpless, imprisoned old man. At worst, Merlin is an evil designer deliberately miscreating Arthur 's world; at best, he is an ambiguous character who simply fails to achieve his goals. In book 1, Merlin creates a world which he cannot, in books 2 through 4, control. Like each of Malory 's characters, he is, after all, only human. Perhaps, ultimately, the reader must see him as Merlin, the bumbling magician. (WTG)

Greene, Virginie. 'How the Demoiselle d’Escalot Became a Picture ' Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 31-48.

Abstract: The Mort Artu 's story of the Demoiselle d 'Escalot displays through its narrative and descriptive peculiarities the difficulty of representing a woman in romance. (VG)

-------. 'The Bed and the Boat: Illustrations of the Demoiselle d 'Escalot 's Story in Illuminated Manuscripts of La Mort Artu. ' Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 50-73.

Abstract: This article studies visual sequences representing the story of the Demoiselle d 'Escalot in ten thirteenth- to fifteenth-century illustrated manuscripts. Although many of these images can be related to two common types of scenes (the conversation scene and the bed scene), the introduction of a 'boat scene ' seems to have forced illustrators to become inventive.(VG)

Grimbert, Joan Tasker. Rev. of Tristan & Isolde. dir. Kevin Reynolds, screenplay by Dean Geogaris. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 84-86.

-------. 'The Fifteenth-Century Prose Cligés: Better Than Just Cutting to the Chase.' Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 62-72.

Abstract: An analysis of the exchanges between Cligés and Fenice in this prose romance shows with what skill the redactor wove the elements he found most compelling in his model into a narrative--utterly devoid of irony--about two earnest individuals whose faithful hearts guide and justyf their actions at every turn.

Grimm, Kevin T. 'Knightly Love and the Narrative Structure of Malory 's Tale Seven. ' AInt 3.2 (Spring 1989): 76-95.

Abstract: Discussing the theme of love in Le Morte Darthur leads directly to the subject of the fall of the Round Table. This is not because Malory portrays love as a destructive force within the chivalric ideal, but because love is a natural part of knighthood. And one of Malory 's most fundamental and persistent themes is the battle between the good of knighthood and the evil of treachery. It is this large epic struggle that gives his version of Arthurian history, and his alone, its universal appeal, and lasting power. Le Morte Darthur tells the story of those who embody humankind 's highest aspirations and their struggle to stave off the chaos threatened by those who do not. In Malory 's world, the love of a worshipful man and a worshipful woman is part of the lofty way of life implied in reverence for the High Order of Knighthood. (KTG)

-------. 'The Reception of Malory 's Morte Darthur Medieval and Modern. ' QetF 2.3 (Fall 1992): 1-14.

Abstract: Throughout Le Morte Darthur, Malory creates a Launcelot and a textual framework for judging Launcelot which are at odds with the two basic matrices of values his readers were likely to bring to his text: one patriotic and one moral. In the chamber scene between Launcelot and Guenevere he creates a very particular and deliberate kind of ambiguity, which is essential to his reinterpretation of Arthurian history. The result is that one of the most significant thematic foci of Malory 's work essentially lay beyond the horizon of expectations of his initial audience. It is hardly surprising that the reception of his text has been marked by ambivalence and division; readers over the course of 500 years have both praised its nobility and been shocked by its morality. (KTG)

-------. 'Editing Malory: What 's at (the) Stake? ' Arthuriana 5.2 (Summer 1995): 5-14.

Abstract: Vinaver 's and Spisak 's editorial interventions deeply affect the ways readers understand Malory 's text. (MNS)

-------. 'The Love and Envy of Sir Palomides. ' Arthuriana 11.2 (Summer 2001): 65-74.

Abstract: Malory constructs Sir Palomides as a microcosm of the forces of loveand envy, whose conflict drives the narrative of the Tale of Sir Tristram. (KTG)

-------. Rev. of The Pagan King by Edison Marshall. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

-------. 'Sir Thomas Malory’s Narrative of Faith. ' Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 16-20.

Abstract: Malory’s narrative is an expression of a deeply held personal faith and as such bears significant resemblance to biblical narrative. (KTG)

Grindley, Carl James. Rev. of Theory and the Premodern Text. By Paul Strohm. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 161-162.

Grooms, Chris. Rev. of Records of Early Drama: Wales. ed. David N. Klausner. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 75-77.

Gross, Gregory W. 'Secret Rules: Sex, Confession, and Truth in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. ' Arthuriana 4.2 (Summer 1994): 146-74.

Abstract: The Gawain -poet chooses an erotic plot to complicate Gawain 's relation to his community and to the meaning of 'traw[[pi]]e. ' Gawain 's seduction by the lady subjects him to the power of confessional technique, and to a disciplinary mode of individualization that shift his sense of 'traw[[pi]]e ' from its traditional meaning (promise; covenant) to a new one, which first emerges in the fourteenth century and endures in the modern sense of 'truth, ' as the objective state of that which is real. (GWG)

Grundy, Stephan. Rev. of The Mordred Manuscript. By Norris J. Lacy. Arthuriana 5.1 (Autumn 1995): 107-108.

Gustafson, Kevin. Rev. of Chaucer to Spencer: An Anthology of Writings in English. By Derek Pearsall. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 145-46.

------. Rev. of The Idea of the Vernacular: An Anthology of Medieval English Literary Theory, 1250-1520. By Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, et al. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 148-149.

------. Rev. of The Lost Tradition: Essays on Middle English Alliterative Poetry by John Scattergood. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

Guy-Bray, Stephen. Rev. of Reading Popular Romance in Early Modern England. By Lori Humphrey Newcomb. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 144-146.

Gwara, Scott. 'A Possible Arthurian Epitome in a Tenth-Century Manuscript from Cornwall.' 17.2 Arthuriana (Summer 2007): 3-9.

Abstract: ‘De raris fabulis,’ an early tenth-century text from Wales or Cornwall, preserves colloquies used by monastic oblates to practice conversational Latin. It yields a potential Arthurian context and may represent the first known account of Arthur's continental war against Rome, as detailed in Historia regum and hinted at in the ‘Life of St Goeznovius.’ (SG)

Hafner, Susane. Rev. of Ulrich von Zatzikhoven 's Lanzelet. Narrative Style and Entertainment. By Nicola McLelland. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 137.

Hahn, Stacey L. 'The Motif of the Errant Knight and the Royal Maiden in the Prose Lancelot. ' AInt 3.1 (Fall 1988): 1-15.

Abstract: In the Prose Lancelot, five major knights are loved by maidens of high birth. The purpose of the alliance is always an implied marriage which the knight must necessarily refuse. The motif reflects the widespread social concern of marrying high ranking maidens to knights of equal rank in order to ensure noble progeny and protection of the maiden 's inheritance. Moreover, textual evidence links the motif to the myths of Morgain and Melusine. Variations of the motif establish a hierarchy which distinguishes the knights according to valor and lineage. (MLD)

Hamel, Mary. 'Adventure as Structure in the Alliterative Morte Arthure. ' AInt 3.1 (Fall 1988): 37-48.

Abstract: While using as his primary source the 'chronicle ' plot originated by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the poet of the alliterative Morte Arthure adapted and shaped that plot by two means: not only the addition of 'romance ' elements to both existing and added episodes, but also the adaption of the central structure of romance, the quest for adventure, to transform the chronicle 's plot of imperial conquest and fall into something more powerfully tragic. His model might have been the poem 's great contemporary Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. (MLD)

Hanks, D. Thomas, Jr. 'Malory 's Way With His Source for "The Giant of Saint Michael 's Mount": Style and Characterization. ' AInt 4.2 (Spring 1990): 24-34.

Abstract: Malory 's chief source for 'The Noble Tale of King Arthur and the Emperor Lucius ' is the alliterative Morte Arthure. In the story of 'The Giant of Saint Michael 's Mount, ' Malory has changed the alliterative Morte 's style and its characterization of Arthur. Given Malory 's purposes, the changes are improvements. Examination of these changes shows a Malory already aware of the stylistic issues of compression, sharpened focus, and wit. In the style and in the Arthur of Malory 's giant-story, may be found the beginnings of the style and of the Arthur which have held the imagination of readers for centuries. (DTH, Jr.)

-------. 'Malory, Dialogue, and Style. ' QetF 3.3 (Fall 1993): 24-34.

Abstract: Eugène Vinaver opened his great three-volume 1947 edition of what he called Sir Thomas Malory 's Works with the judgment that Malory 's style was merely a matter of borrowing or translating words from his sources, then rearranging them. The study of Malory 's style has made some progress since that point. Malory 's style of narration has appealed to modern readers in a way that prevents their properly appreciating the style of his dialogue. In fact, the fast-paced style of his narrative has led to a misreading of his dialogue. (DTH, Jr.)

-------. 'Malory 's Book of Sir Tristram: Focusing Le Morte Darthur. ' QetF 3.1 (Spring 1993): 14-31.

Abstract: The Tristram-book dwells upon the adulterous affair of Tristram and Isode in ways that Malory excludes from the romance of Lancelot and Guinevere, but in ways that color a reader 's view of the later relationship. What Malory did was to present the Tristram-Isode affair as a great love, to be sure, but as a great love distinctly tarnished at the edges. He removed virtually all the tarnish from the Lancelot-Guinevere affair—tarnish he found in his sources—but in showing us the parallel love as stained, he comments subtly about the nature of the Lancelot-Guinevere relationship. (DTH, Jr.)

-------. Rev. of King Arthur in Legend and History Ed. Richard White. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 116-117.

-------. 'The Rhetoric of the Folk Fairy Tale in Sir Thomas Malory 's Tale of Sir Gareth. ' Arthuriana 13.3 (Fall 2003): 52-67.

Abstract: This essay demonstrates the extent to which the Tale of Sir Gareth adheres to the rhetorical pattern of the folk fairy tale and argues further that this pattern shapes Malory 's revision of the Arthurian legend.. (DTH, Jr.)

-------. 'Epilogue: Malory 's Morte Darthur and 'the Place of the Voice '. ' Arthuriana 13.4 (Winter 2003): 119-133.

Abstract: Reading Malory 's Morte aloud adds elements to the oral-aural text which do not exist in the text when read silently to oneself. (DTH)

Hanna, Ralph. Rev. of Engaging Words: The Culture of Reading in the Later Middle Ages by Laurel Amtower. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

Harding, George E. Rev. of The Pilgrimage Motif in the Works of the Medieval German Author Hartmann von Aue. By Mary Vandegrift Mills. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 140-142.

Harrington, David V. 'The Conflicting Passions of Malory 's Sir Gawain and Sir Lancelot. ' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 64-69.

Abstract: In the concluding sections of the Morte Darthur, Sir Thomas Malory presents images of major characters-especially Sir Lancelot, Sir Gawain, and King Arthur-in seemingly contradictory behavior. They have special relationships with each other which complicate recognition and appreciation of the idealism each represents. Malory 's characters are torn between chivalric standards and personal obligations. They modify the standards in ways that finally destroy the Round Table fellowship. Malory 's major figures fulfill themselves while adhering to what must have been recognized as the best forms of noble idealism in fifteenth-century chivalry. (DVH)

Harty, Kevin J. 'Cinema Arthuriana: Translations of the Arthurian Legend to the Screen. ' AInt 2.1 (Fall 1987): 95-113.

Abstract: In his preface to The Arthurian Encyclopedia, Norris J. Lacy notes that it is the 'transposability ' of the legend of Arthur that 'explains, or at least permits, its popularity '(vii). Evidence of that transposability has been readily available for over eighty years in the more than thirty film adaptations of the legend of Arthur. An extensive study of the cinematic translations of the legend of the once and future king extends from the silents through the eighties and attests to Arthur 's survival and popularity. (KJH)

-------. 'Cinema Arthuriana: A Bibliography of Selected Secondary Material. ' AInt 3.2 (Spring 1989): 119-37.

Abstract: This bibliography of reviews and other secondary materials relating to film versions of the legend of King Arthur supplements and updates earlier studies. The arrangement of the bibliography follows the chronology in essays already published. Film titles are given first--alternate titles are separated by a slash--followed by the name of the director, the name of the production company, and the date of the film. Information on the availability of films for rental appears in parentheses. (KJH)

-------. Rev. of 'Sir Thomas Malory 's Morte D 'Arthur. ' Dramatised and directed by David Freeman. AInt 4.2 (Spring 1990): 88-90.

-------. 'Television 's The Adventures of Sir Lancelot. ' QetF 1.4 (Winter 1991): 71-79.

Abstract: The easy transposability of the legend of the Once and Future King has allowed that legend to find a home on television in more modern times as readily as it has in the past in other media. One of the earliest and longest running examples of Arthurian television was the thirty-episode series, The Adventures of Sir Lancelot 1956-57 (NBC), rebroadcast 1957-1958 (ABC). (KJH)

-------. 'The Knights of the Square Table : The Boy Scouts and Thomas Edison Make an Arthurian Film. ' Arthuriana 4.4 (Winter 1994): 313-23.

Abstract: The George Kleine Collection of Early Motion Pictures in the Library of Congress contains a largely unknown example of Arthurian film, the Edison Company 's 1917 release of The Knights of the Square Table. The film deserves attention for three reasons: it skillfully balances two parallel and interrelated plots; it continues a tradition that associated the Boy Scouts-both in England and abroad-with the matter of Arthur; and it reflects a general movement, especially in America, to address the problem of the proper education of boys. (KJH)

-------. Rev. of First Knight. Dir., Jerry Zucher. Arthuriana 5.3 (Autumn 1995): 137-40.

-------. Rev. of three Arthurian films: A Young Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur 's Court, A Kid in King Arthur 's Court, and Four Diamonds. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 115-18.

--------. Rev. of The Use of the Arthurian Legend in Hollywood Film: From Connecticut Yankees to Fisher Kings. By Rebecca A. Umland and Samuel J. Umland. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 148-50.

------. Rev. of Arthur, A King. By Anthony Peters. Dir., Rob Ballard. Arthuriana 10.4 (Winter 2000): 63-65.

-------. Rev. of Gawain. By Harrison Birtwistle. Arthuriana 10.2 (Summer 2000): 104-105.

-------. Rev. of Arthurian Narrative in the Latin Tradition. By Siân Echard. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 113-14.

-------. Rev. of Silk and Potatoes: Contemporary Arthurian Fantasy Bert Olton, Arthurian Legends on Film and Television. By Adam Roberts. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 125-28.

-------. Rev. of The Mists of Avalon. A four-hour miniseries. By Uli Edel. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 121.

-------. Rev. of A Knight's Tale and A Knight's Tale: The Shooting Script by Brian Helgeland. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

-------. Rev. of The World of King Arthur by Christopher Snyder. Arthuriana 12.2 (Summer 2002): 163-164.

-------. Rev. of Visions of the Maid: Joan of Arc in American Film and Culture. By Robin Blaetz. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 113-115.

-------. Rev. of Pendragon by W. Barnard Faraday. Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 102-103.

-------. Rev. of King Arthur in Popular Culture by Elizabeth S. Sklar and Donald L. Hoffman. Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 107-109.

-------. 'King Arthur Goes to War (Singing, Dancing, and Cracking Jokes): Marcel Varnel’s 1942 Film King Arthur Was A Gentleman. ' Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 17-25.

Abstract: Marcel Varnel’s now-little-known 1942 film, King Arthur Was a Gentleman, presents a version of the Arthurian return contemporary with Britain’s darkest hour during World War II. (KJH)

-------. Rev. of Adapting the Arthurian Legends for Children: Essays on Arthurian Juvenilia by Barbara Tepa Lupack, ed. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 76-77.

-------. Rev. of The Arthurian Annals, The Tradition in English from 1250–2000 by Daniel P. Nastali and Philip C. Boardman, eds. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 77-79.

-------. Brief Notice of L’imaginaire médiéval dans le cinéma occidental by François Amy de la Bretéque. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 83.

-------. Rev. of Arturo el Rey. By Joan Upton Hall. Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 103-104.

-------. Rev. of Joan of Arc in French Art and Culture (1700–1855), From Satire to Sanctity. By Nora M. Heimann. Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 104-105.

-------. Rev. of King Arthur, or The British Worthy; A Dramatick Opera in Five Acts. By Henry Purcell. Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 108-109.

------. Rev. of Studies in Medievalism XIII [for 2004]: Postmodern Medievalisms. Richard Utz and Jesse G. Swan (with Paul Plisiewicz), eds. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 113-114.

------. Rev. of Wah-Wah. Richard E. Grant, Writer and dir. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 117-119.

------. Rev. of Mittlelter im Film. By Christian Kiening and Heinrich Adolf, eds. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 99.

------. Rev. of The Last Legion. Doug Lefler, dir. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 103-104.

-------. Rev. of 'Lerner & Loewe's Camelot.' Dir. by Curt Columbus. Arthuriana 21.1 (Spring 2011): 113.

-------. Rev. of Cinematic Illuminations: The Middle Ages on Film. By Laurie A. Finke and Martin B. Shichman. Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011).

Harty, Kevin J. and Debra N. Mancoff . Rev. of Monty Python’s Spamalot. By Eric Idle and John du Prez. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 73-74.

-------. Rev. of Illustrating Camelot. By Barbara Tepa Lupack with Alan Lupack. Arthuriana 19.1 (Spring 2009): 85

Hasty, Will. Rev. of Arthurian Romances, Tales, and Lyric Poetry. The Complete Works of Hartmann von Aue. By Hartmann von Aue. Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 103-104.

-------. Rev. of 'Diu Crône ' and the Medieval Arthurian Cycle. by Neil Thomas. Arthuriana 13.3 (Fall 2003): 126-127.

-------.'Bullish on Love and Adventure: Chivalry as Speculation in the German Arthurian Romances. ' Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010): 65-80.


Abstract: Adventure and love are speculative in the modern sense. In the romances of Hartmann von Aue and Wolfram von Eschenbach, they tend continually to be oriented towards a conclusion or closure that has not yet occurred, a final result that has not yet been established, a game that has not yet been decided, as this essay endeavors to show. (WH)

Haug, Walter. 'Reinterpreting the Tristan Romances of Thomas and Gotfrid: Implications of a Recent Discovery. ' Arthuriana 7.3 (Fall 1997): 45-59.

Abstract: The recent discovery of the Carlisle Fragment of Thomas 's (Tristan) makes it necessary to revise our view of Gotfrid 's relationship to Thomas 's work. (RN)

Haught, Leah. Rev. of A Moment in the Field: Voices from Arthurian Legend By Margaret Lloyd, Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 124-125.

-------.'Ghostly Mothers and Fated Fathers: Gender and Genre in The Awntyrs off Arthure.' Arthuriana 20.1 (Spring 2010): 3-24.

Abstract: Personified as the ghost of Guenevere’s dead mother, the past disrupts a present in the Awntyrs off Arthure to convey a warning about an ominous future to an unlikely subject: Guenevere herself. This interaction between mother and daughter functions as an important commentary on the inevitable limitations associated with any conception of history, temporal stability, or power. (LH)

Heller, Sarah-Grace. Rev. of The Cambridge Companion to Medieval French Literature. By Simon Gaunt and Sarah Kay. Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010).

Helm, Joan. 'The Celestial Circle: Fées, Philosophy, and Numerical Circularity in Medieval Arthurian Romances. ' AInt 3.1 (Fall 1988): 25-36.

Abstract: A careful and perceptive analysis of the relation of author and narrator in romance prologues and their respective textual authority leads to an analysis of the Epilogue to Chrétien 's Charrette to show that Godefroi de Lagny is a functional continuator invented by Chrétien. The fictionalization of the continuator allows Chrétien to propose two closures to the romance, the one in the tower episode and the other in the final combat with Meleagant. The technique of the invented continuator is illustrated by the author 's voice in the Prologue, the introduction of Meleagant 's sister, and Guenevere 's 'absence ' when Lancelot returns to Arthur 's court. (MLD)

-------. 'Nature 's Marvel: Enide as Earth Measure in an Early Arthurian Manuscript. ' QetF 1.3 (Fall 1991): 1-24.

Abstract: The Grail story and the Arthurian romances as set out in the Guiot manuscript are all variations on the single theme of the union of heaven and earth. Enide was the maiden whose beauty was so great that Arthur believed that she must have come from that place where heaven and earth unite. When the poverty-stricken sewing damsels in Yvain are liberated, we are told that their joy is so great that it would not have been greater even if the One who created the world should descend from heaven to earth. The marriage of the hero Yvain to a beautiful Christian lady is mediated by a damsel significantly named Lunette. The sequence of the lunar diameter 2160 is marked by a capital. The occasion is the celebration of the marriage or beautiful union made possible by Lunette. Soon after the marriage of Yvain and the beautiful Christian lady discord appears, but with the help of the ever faithful Lunette, unity is restored in the lines corresponding to the circumference of the moon. (JH)

-------. 'Erec, The Hebrew Heritage: Urban Tigner Holmes Vindicated. ' QetF 2.1 (Spring 1992): 1-15.

Abstract: Chrétien claimed that in Erec et Enide, he would tell a story that would never be forgotten so long as Christianity endures. This claim is justified when the numerical equivalents of the relevant Greek letters are applied to the Name of the one whose story will be told so long as Christianity endures. As early as 1959 Urban Tigner Holmes raised the plausible suggestion, based partly on an analysis of lists of names in the region of Troyes, that Chrétien de Troyes may have been a Jewish convert to Christianity. In the Guiot manuscript, the first Arthurian romance Erec et Enide is marked by structural devices and cryptic clues harmonious with the concept that it is the workmanship of someone with an intimate knowledge of the Hebrew heritage. (JH)

Henneman, John Bell. Rev. of The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages from the English Century to 1340. By J. F. Verbruggen. Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 155-56.

Herman, Harold J. 'The Women in Mary Stewart 's Merlin Trilogy. ' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 101-14.

Abstract: Arthur truly loves Guenevere, but unlike the majority of Stewart 's female characters, Guenevere is not a strong woman. Although she is not afraid of her husband, she is afraid of the people around her, afraid of Melwas, and especially afraid of Merlin. Indeed, Arthur tells Merlin that at times he thinks Guenevere is afraid of life itself. Even in the case of Guenevere, a weak woman, Mary Stewart has both Merlin and Arthur defend and forgive her. Such a treatment of Guenevere is consistent with Stewart 's overall theme of strong dominant women who reject traditonal feminine roles. (HJH)

-------. 'Sharan Newman 's Guinevere Trilogy. ' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 39-55.

Abstract: With the publication of Guinevere (1981), The Chessboard Queen(1984), and Guinevere Evermore (1985), Sharan Newman became the first writer to produce an Arthurian trilogy on Guinevere. Newman has made an important contribution to the Arthurian legend because of her perceptive emotional and mental development of Guinevere from teenager to mature adult, her unique feminine view of Arthur 's world, her wit, and her convincing, sympathetic portrayal of Guinevere. (HJH)

-------. 'Sir Kay, Seneschal of King Arthur 's Court. ' AInt 4.1 (Fall 1989): 1-31.

Abstract: Although Sir Kay, seneschal of King Arthur 's court, may be a minor character in Arthurian romance, he is of major interest to many Arthurians, for he is one of the oldest figures of the legend. It is fascinating, yet puzzling, to note the dramatic transformation of Kay 's character--from a heroic figure in early Welsh literature to a noble and valiant knight in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's Historia Regum Britanniae and finally to a despicable, sarcastic troublemaker in the works of Chrétien de Troyes. (HJH)

Hess, Scott. 'Jousting in the Classroom: Teaching the Arthurian Legend. ' (The Round Table: Teaching King Arthur at Harvard.) Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 133-38.

Higgins, Iain Macleod. Rev. of The Postcolonial Middle Ages. By Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. Arthuriana 12.2 (Summer 2002): 151-152.

Hildebrand, Kristina. Rev. of A Dictionary of King Arthur's Knights. By Pamela Ryan. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 110-111.

Hinton, Norman D. 'The Language of the Gawain-Poems. ' AInt 2.1 (Fall 1987): 83-94.

Abstract: Using a computer-aided study of the vocabulary of Middle English contributes to knowledge of each word in the works of the Gawain-poet. The database for Sir Gawain and the Green Knightand other Middle English poems enables description of the lexicon and presents tentative material which has never been available before, nor has it been so quickly and readily retrievable. Specific questions can be raised regarding the author 's language which provide suggestions for future research. (NDH)

-------. Rev. of The Arthurian Revival: Essays on Form, Tradition, and Transformation. Ed. Debra N. Mancoff. QetF 3.2 (Summer 1993): 72-76.

Ho, Cynthia. Rev. of The Pleier 's Arthurian Romances: Garel of The Blooming Valley, Tandareis and Flordibel, Meleran. Trans. J. W. Thomas. QetF 3.1 (Spring 1993): 74-76.

Hobbins, Daniel. Rev. of Le Siècle d'or de la mystique française: De Jean Gerson à Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples. Elena Masur-Matusevich. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 103-104.

Hodder, Karen. Rev. of The Return of King Arthur: The Legend through Victorian Eyes. By Debra N. Mancoff. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 158-59.

Hodges, Kenneth. 'Swords and Sorceresses: The Chivalry of Malory 's Nyneve. ' Arthuriana 12.2 (Summer 2002): 78-96.

Abstract: Malory 's Nyneve, herself a chivalric figure, redefines important elements
of political and romantic chivalry. (KH)

-------.'Haunting Pieties: Malory’s Use of Chivalric Christian Exempla after the Grail.' 17.2 Arthuriana (Summer 2007): 28-49.

Abstract: Malory’s ‘The Poisoned Apple’ and ‘The Healing of Sir Urry’ are linked to Christian exempla that assign moral and theological meaning to knightly action. The absence of morals supplied by the narrator, however, forces the audience to decide for themselves how to resolve the various inter- and intra-textual tensions, and raises questions of how much moral authority resides within the matter of exempla and how much is a matter of the author’s intention or the audience’s will. (KH)

Hodges, Laura F. 'Steinbeck 's Dream Sequence in The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights. ' AInt 4.2 (Spring 1982): 35-49.

Abstract: Steinbeck evokes Lancelot 's inner struggle, and its temporary resolution, through enigmatic dream symbolism. His dream sequence begins at the deepest level of fantasy in an enchanted castle that symbolizes his mind/soul. His temptations are personified by the witchqueens and the proffered gifts. Following an inner struggle, he rejects these temptations and escapes with the help of a damsel with whom he makes a bargain. His chivalry is intact, but his inner confusion lingers; thus, he travels in the wrong direction. A reading of this section of Steinbeck 's narrative provides an example of psychological realism portrayed in a dream sequence, and a twentieth-century version of the medieval dream vision. (LFH)

-------. 'Steinbeck 's Adaptation of Malory 's Launcelot: A Triumph of Realism over Supernaturalism. ' QetF 2.1 (Spring 1992): 69- 81.

Abstract: An analysis of Steinbeck 's attitude toward Fate and prophesy reveals that he emphasizes Lancelot 's greatness and gallantry through depicting this knight 's ability to act in spite of his knowledge and because he does not allow himself to be paralyzed by fear. He remains a man of action, regardless of what could be paralyzing knowledge, when he is imprisoned by the witchqueens and again when he reads his fate, or recognizes his own feelings in the eyes of the enchantress. Through Lancelot, prefigured in Ewain, Steinbeck offers training in the proper pattern of gallantry and skill as the hope for a solution to the human dilemma. In the mental prison of the witchqueens ' temptation, Lancelot 's true mettle and training are put to the test. Steinbeck keeps his vision of Lancelot 's character bright and alive in The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights, but he departs drastically from his intended 'translation ' in order to do so. (LFH)

-------. ‘“Syngne,” “Conysaunce,” “Deuys”: Three Pentangles in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.’Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter 1995): 22-31.

Abstract: Linguistic evidence and knowledge of heraldic diction reveals that Gawain displays three pentangles in his arms and dress, a fact previously obscured by editorial glosses and either forgotten or overlooked by scholars. (LFH)

Hoffman, Donald L. 'The Third British Emperor. ' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 1-10.

Abstract: The third British emperor appeared to be, but was not, Arthur, which propels the triad forward to an actual completion in a future time. Geoffrey 's Historia, thus, urges us toward a consideration of the posthistorical, unwritten and unwritable, fourth age, when we can anticipate the advent of the transfigured British hero of whom Arthur was the flawed prefiguration. Indeed, in the cycles of eternal return, that emperor may yet be an Arthur, who, redeemed and transfigured like his people, will once again be worthy to reclaim the purified promised land, Britain, best of islands. (DLH)

-------. 'The Ogre and the Virgin: Varieties of Sexual Experience in Malory 's Morte Darthur. ' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 19-25.

Abstract: In addition to the central adulterous loves of Lancelot and Guinevere and Tristram and Isode, Malory 's Morte Darthur includes--at least implicitly-- a variety of sexual experiences including cannibalism, castration, intercourse with demons, incest, lesbianism, matricide, necrophilia, nymphomania, rape, sado-masochism, sodomy, transvestitism, vampirism, and what may be the ultimate perversion, the absolute chastity of Galahad. Malory provides an ethic of sexuality that places the adultery of Lancelot and Guinevere somewhere near the center of a range of experience, the limits of which are defined by the opposed careers of the giant of St. Michael 's Mount and the chaste knight Galahad. The middle way, however, which includes Gareth 's marriage, does not guarantee happiness. Love ties us to the world, and, inevitably, to the world 's instability and corruption, revealing both the meaning and the meaninglessness of desire. Ultimately, then, Malory invites us to consider not the variety, but the fragility, of sexual experience. (MLD)

-------. Rev. of Love 's Masks: Identity, Intertextuality, and Meaning in The Old French Tristan Poems . By Merritt R. Blakeslee. QetF 1.1 (Spring 1991): 89-91.

-------. Rev. of Layamon 's Brut: The Poem and its Sources. By Françoise H.M. Le Saux. QetF 1.1 (Spring 1991): 91-94.

-------. 'Malory 's Tragic Merlin. ' QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 15-31.

Abstract: Functionally, in Malory 's Morte Darthur Merlin 's prophecies foreshadow and prepare for future tragedy, providing a sense of tragic destiny rather than serving the purposes of warning or of remediation. As a character Merlin is both knowing and helpless, his own fate providing a model of the tragedy of the kingdom. Although he knows how he will meet his fate, he is incapable of preventing it. Thus, at the beginning, Merlin 's history inscribes the history of destructive passion that will lead to the fall of the Round Table just as it leads to its own castration, the consequence of both lust and treachery. (MLD)

-------, and Maureen Fries. 'In Memoriam Jeanne T. Mathewson. ' QetF 1.4 (Winter 1991): 106-108.

-------. 'Isotta Da Rimini: Gabriele D 'Annunzio 's Use of the Tristan Legend in His Francesca da Rimini. ' QetF 2.3 (Fall 1992): 46-54.

Abstract: Gabriele D 'Annunzio 's Francesca da Rimini remains our century 's first attempt to rethink the legend of Tristan. Dante 's thirteenth century and the tales of Lancelot and Guinevere provide much of the texture of the play, but it is Tristan and Iseult who provide its essence, for it is the blood and wine and roses of Tristan that give life to the lovers of Rimini and identify d 'Annunzio 's originality as a reader and reviser of the Tristan. His play may be rooted in the decadence of the late nineteenth century, but it anticipates the twentieth-century concern with intertextuality and the coding and recoding of myth. (DLH)

-------.Rev. of The Arthurian Yearbook II . Ed. Keith Busby. QetF 3.2 (Summer 1993): 69-71.

-------. 'Pomorex: Arthurian Tradition in Barthelme 's The King, Acker 's Don Quixote, and Reed 's Flight to Canada. ' Arthuriana 4.4 (Winter 1994): 376-86.

Abstract: This article assesses the use of Arthurian themes in Donald Barthelme 's The King, Kathy Acker 's Don Quixote, and Ishmael Reed 's Flight to Canada. While Barthelme has few problems lamenting the loss of Arthurian innocence in the modern world, Acker presents a feminist critique of the Arthurian/chivalric embeddedness in 'masculinity, ' and Reed presents a profound and profoundly comic critique of the 'whiteness ' of Arthurian values as reflected in the vicious owner of the plantation Camelot, Arthur Swille. (DLH)

-------. Rev. of The Romance of Arthur: An Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation. Ed. by James J. Wilhelm. Arthuriana 5.1 (Autumn 1995): 91-93.

-------. Rev. of The Fall of Kings and Princes: Structure and Destruction in Arthurian Tragedy. By M. Victoria Guerin. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 97-98.

-------. 'Perceval 's Sister: Malory 's Rejected Masculinities. ' Arthuriana 6.4 (Winter 1996): 72-83.

Abstract: Against the background of the Christlike model incarnated by Perceval 's sister, this essay reviews the central 'masculinities ' presented in Malory 's text to argue that Lancelot tries on and rejects the various modes of masculinity until accepting his final role which includes the Christlike and the feminine. (DLH)

-------. Rev. of Medieval Comic Tales. Ed. Derek Brewer. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 146-47.

-------. 'Guenevere the Enchantress. ' Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 30-36.

Abstract: This post-Dumezilian analysis to Fries ' tripartite typology of female roles in Arthurian legend, primarily Malory, suggests that the rumors of Guenevere 's witchcraft and the genealogy of Morgan confuse the boundaries of legitimacy and imply a latent counter-reading of Malory and a destabilization of the contraries in the Fries schema. (DLH)

-------. Rev. of Andrea da Batberino and the Language of Chivalry. By Catherine S. Cox. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 93-94.

-------. Rev. of Who 's Who in the Middle Ages. By Mary Ellen Snodgrass. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 142-143.

-------. Rev. of The Song of Sir Rod the Long: A Gay Romance of the Round Table. By Larry Howard. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 136-139.

-------. Rev. of Medieval Ghost Stories: An Anthology of Miracles, Marvels, and Prodigies. By Andrew Joynes, ed. Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 102-104.

-------. Rev. of New Directions in Arthurian Studies. By Alan Lupack, ed. Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 109-111.

-------. Rev. of Homoeroticism and Chivalry: Discourses of Male Same-Sex Desire in the Fourteenth Century. By Richard E. Zeikowitz. Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 120-122.

-------. Rev. of The Friend. By Alan Bray. Arthuriana 14.3 (Fall 2004): 94-95.

-------. Rev. of The Orient in Chaucer and Medieval Romance. By Carol F. Heffernan. Arthuriana 14.3 (Fall 2004): 101-102.

-------. Rev. of Arthurian Literature, XX. By Keith Busby, gen ed., and Roger Dalrymple, assoc. ed. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 81-82.

-------. Rev. of Before Malory: Reading Arthur in Later Medieval England. By Richard J. Moll. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 91-92.

-------. Rev. of The Legend of the Grail. By Nigel Bryant. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 65-67.

-------. Rev. of The Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend. By Alan Lupack. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 77-79.

-------. 'Assimilating Saracens: The Aliens in Malory's Morte Darthur. ' Arthuriana 16.4 (Summer 2006): 43-64.

Abstract: The trajectory of Malory’s whole work implies a complicated pattern of understanding and misunderstanding of the Saracen climaxing in a kind of whinging Armageddon as the remnant of Camelot surrenders to martyrdom in the Holy Land. (DLH)

-------. Rev. of Queer Love in the Middle Ages. Anna Klosowska. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 94-96.

-------. Rev. of King Arthur: A Dramatick Opera, Music by Henry Purcell, Libretto by John Drysen, Director: Mark Morris. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 80.

-------. Rev. of Lancelot and the Lord of the Distant Isles, or, The Book of Galehaut Retold. By Patricia Terry and Samuel N. Rosenberg with wood engravings by Judith Jaidinger, Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 115-116.

-------. 'Bearing the Grail. ' Arthuriana 18.1 (Spring 2008): 88-96.

Abstract: The attempt to reconstruct the legendary appearance of Valerie Lagorio as a Grail bearer in a Met production of Parsifal leads to a reconsideration of gender and the meaning of the Grail in Wagnerís opera. This reconsideration finds a fairly powerful feminist subtest undermining much of Wagnerís overtly masculinist ideology and concludes with a consideration of Parsifalís shift from was to wo. In this shift in the definition of the Grail from a thing to a person, one finds a model that is reflected in the career of the archetypal Grail bearer, Valerie Lagorio. (DLH)

-------. Rev. of Images of Kingship in Chaucer and His Ricardian Contemporaries. By Samantha K. Rayner. Chaucer Studies XXXIX. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 2008. Pp. 177.

-------.Rev. of Arthur Does Camelot. By Tim Desmondes. Arthuriana 19.4 (Winter 2009): 72-73.

-------.Rev. of Hollywood in the Holy Land: Essays on Film Depictions of the Crusdades and Christian-Muslim Clashes. By Nickolas Haydock and E. L. Risden. Arthuriana 19.4 (Winter 2009): 74-75.

-------. Rev. of The Grail, the Quest, and the World of Arthur. By Norris J. Lacy. Arthuriana 20.1 (Spring 2010): 106.

Hogenbirk, Marjolein 'Intertextuality and Gauvain. ' Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 13-25.

Abstract: Medieval Flanders was a polyglot and rich cultural region in which many different literary genres and matières circulated. This article explores the way authors alluded to other texts and traditions current in Flanders, as well as the effects these allusions might have had on their unknown intended audience. (DFJ)

Holbrook, Sue Ellen. Rev. of Editing Women. Ed. Ann Hutchinson. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 139-40.

-------. Rev. of King Arthur’s Enchantresses: Morgan and Her Sisters in Arthurian Tradition. By Carolyne Larrington. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 101-102.

-------.'Guenevere: the Abbess of Amesbury and the Mark of Reparation.' Arthuriana 20.1 (Spring 2010): 25-51.

Abstract: Malory elevates Guenevere to abbess of Amesbury where she heals her soul through a penitential process clarifi ed by Cassian’s teachings on attitude and supplication and by the cloister context and devotional formulas of her speech on salvation. (SEH)

Holloway, Julia Bolton. Rev. of Julian of Norwich: Autobiography and Theology. By Christopher Abbot. Arthuriana 9.4 (Winter 1999): 116-17.

-------. Rev. of Julian of Norwich: A Book of Essays By Sandra J. McEntire. Arthuriana 9.4 (Winter 1999): 133-35.

-------. Rev. of The Cloud of Unknowing. By Patrick J. Gallacher. Arthuriana 7.4 (Winter 1997): 111-113.

Holmes, Olivia. Rev. of Courtly Contradictions: The Emergence of the Literary Object in the Twelfth Century. By Sarah Kay. Arthuriana 13.3 (Fall 2003): 118-120.

Hopkins, Amanda. Rev. of A Companion to Medieval Popular Romance. Studies in Medieval Romance 10. By Raluca L. Radulescu and Cory James Rushton. Arthuriana 20.4 (Winter 2010): 106.

Hosler, John D. Rev. of Special Operations in the Age of Chivalry, 1100-1550. By. Yuval Noah Harari. Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010):125-26.

Householder, Michael. Rev. of Translating Investments: Metaphor and the Dynamic of Cultural Change in Tudor-Stuart England. By Judith H. Anderson. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 71-73.

Howey, Ann F. 'Queens, Ladies and Saints: Arthurian Women in Contemporary Short Fiction. ' Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 23-38.

Abstract: Arthurian short stories increasingly incorporate feminist issues by revisioning the legend 's traditional symbols of power, definition of heroism, and binary oppositions between good and evil.

-------. Rev. of Exiled from Camelot by Cherith Baldry. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

-------. Rev. of The Follies of Sir Harald by Phyllis Ann Karr. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 140-142.

Howlett, D.R. 'The Literary Context of Geoffrey of Monmouth: An Essay on the Fabrication of Sources. ' Arthuriana 5.3 (Autumn 1995): 25-69.

Abstract: Geoffrey of Monmouth 's various dedications of the HRB and his remarks at the end of the book issued from literary rivalry with William of Malmesbury, Henry of Huntington, and Caradog of Llancarfan. Geoffrey 's appeal to a secret source became a model for subsequent authors and translators. (DRH)

-------. Rev. of The English Conquest: Gildas and Britain in the Fifth Century. By N.J. Higham. Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 72-74.

Huber, Emily Rebekah . '‘Delyver Me My Dwarff!’: Gareth’s Dwarf and Chivalric Identity. ' Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 49-53.

Abstract: In Malory’s Tale of Sir Gareth, the servant dwarf functions as a catalyst for the development of Gareth’s chivalric identity. (ERH)

Hughes, Linda K. '"All That Makes a Man": Tennyson 's Idylls of the King as a Primer for Modern Gentlemen.' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 54-63.

Abstract: The 1859 Idylls were a primer for modern gentlemen in the traditional sense, setting forth codes of conduct. But this primer was for modern gentlemen, indeed, and the newness of Tennyson 's Arthurian materials in this respect was his argument that only in relation to women, and by sharing part of their nature could men hope to be real and true men, just as the inverse held for real and true women. Not only do these poems focus more on manhood and womanhood than on metaphysics, but the careful parallels between male and female characters emerge more clearly. These parallels, in turn, were Tennyson 's means of giving an old and new approach to Arthurian literature as a code of conduct. (MLD)

Huneycutt, Lois L. Rev. of Eleanor of Castile: Queen and Society in Thirteenth-Century England. By John Carmi Parsons. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 109-111.

Hyatte, Reginald. 'Tristran 's Monologues as a Narrative Model in Thomas 's Roman de Tristan. ' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 32-41.

Abstract: Thomas 's model of human love (of which he speaks in specific terms in regard to Tristran in general terms with respect to most lovers in his commentary on Tristran 's first monologue) provides a continuous thread that runs from the primary Tristran-Isolt narrative through the secondary narrative units. Although Tristran 's love serves as the structural model for love relationships in the secondary narrative, it is different in quality from the sorts of love characterized by envy, slander, and deceit in the cases of Cariado, Isolt Aux Blanches Mains, and Brengien. Each of the repetitions of the model of Tristran 's love-hatred in the secondary narrative exhibits its own particular thematic and structural variations. Thus the romance 's scattered fragments reveal an intermingling of structure and meaning between the primary and secondary narrative levels that suggests a whole cloth of tightly interwoven human passions. (RH)

Ihle, Sandra N. 'The Art of Adaptation in Malory 's Books Seven and Eight. ' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 75-85.

Abstract: By eliminating the circumlocutio and interpretatio of his source, Malory transformed the Mort Artu, which is an amplification on the effects of the failure of Arthur 's court in the Grail quest, into two works which have nothing to do with the Grail. Through abbreviation, he invented a world, consistent with this own version of the Grail quest, in which it is the actions of men that count. Malory 's Arthurian world expresses a beautiful, noble ideal where men are the best they can be, and he shows us this world in book seven. In book eight he shows us this world destroyed, not by God, fate, or providence, or even by unwitting actions of the best of men, but by the deliberate treachery of the worst. By implicitly heeding Geoffrey 's admonition to 'clear away mist and usher in sunlight, ' in abbreviating he unveils for us his own conception of the Arthurian story. (SNI)

------. Rev. of On Arthurian Women: Essays in Memory of Maureen Fries by Bonnie Wheeler and Fiona Tolhurst, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 162-164.

Ingham, Patricia Clare. 'Masculine Military Unions: Brotherhood and Rivalry in The Avowing of King Arthur. ' Arthuriana 6.4 (Winter 1996): 25-44.

Abstract: When viewed in the larger context of chivalric culture during the Wars of the Roses, The Avowing of King Arthur suggests the pertinence of the Arthurian story to the construction of late-medieval military masculinity. (PCI)

------. Rev. of The Social and Literary Contexts of Malory 's Morte Darthur by D. Thomas Hanks, Jr. and Jessica G. Brogdon, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 133-135.

Jaech, Sharon L. Jansen. 'The Parting of Lancelot and Gaynor: The Effect of Repetition in the Stanzaic Morte Arthur. ' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 59-69.

Abstract: The parting scene relies first on repetition. It also relies on the effective use of stanza- linking. As the lovers address one another, in turn, their speeches become more dignified through this additional repetition. The linking works against the stanza breaks to provide smooth transition, and the echoing makes the speeches more formal, their music more solemn. (SLJJ)

Jaeger, C. Stephen. 'Odysseus, Parzival, and Faust.' Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 3-20.

Abstract: This essay takes ‘charismatic representation’ as the category that makes the three figures of the title comparable. It argues that each of the works creates exemplarity in the main characters by projecting their strength, desirability and destinies into the supernatural, at least to the point where a contest with the supernatural is an option, which ends inevitably in higher reconciliation. After defining ‘charismatic representation,’ it focuses on the elements that best illustrate that mode and that best invite comparison of the three works: the fantastic, the rise of the hero, and defiance of the gods. (CSJ)

Jamison, Carol Parrish. 'A Description of the Medieval Romance Based upon King Horn. ' QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 44-58.

Abstract: The author of King Horn expects his audience to be familiar with a variety of romances, for he offers few explanations in the course of his narrative. In King Horn, the hero is knighted before the audience sees him engaged in battle. Of course, the audience expects the hero of the romance to be worthy of being knighted, and subsequently Horn proves his worth. The author incorporates common motifs and devices without questioning or explaining the conventions of courtly love. He does not seem to address a particular issue. Rather, he simply puts forth a hero who possesses all the desirous traits of a courtly hero: Horn is a worthy knight; he possesses humility and loyalty; and he is a successful lover. (CPJ)

Jankofsky, Klaus P. '"America" in Parke Godwin 's Arthurian Novels. ' AInt 4.2 (Spring 1990): 65-80.

Abstract: In The Last Rainbow, in his use of historical or quasi-historical materials incorporated into the narrative itself, Parke Godwin follows a practice he had established already in Firelord and used successfully in Beloved Exile, the stance of the historical chronicler who reports seemingly verifiable information and fact. This may be to lend some sort of historical verisimilitude and credence, while at the same time giving the attentive reader a startlingly delightful surprise in his appreciation of the novelist 's imagination. In The Last Rainbow, this device is more wildly speculative and, besides achieving a similarly unexpected surprise ending, allows us to appreciate the originality and creativity of a lucid and well-informed, sensitive artist who challenges the reader to ponder the imaginative recreation of a neolithic people and their link to another aboriginal people, the American Indians. The mysterious or mythic dimensions evoked by Godwin can be seen as part of a wider inquiry into the need of the human mind to create meaning and models of existence, sometimes through institutions, sometimes through role models or heroes, or archetypes; in any case, through some connection to the history of humankind. (KPJ)

Jenkens, Jacqueline. Rev. of The Reel Middle Ages: American, Western and eastern European, Middle Eastern and Asian Films About Medieval Europe. By Kevin J. Harty. Arthuriana 9.4 (Winter 1999): 129-30.

-------. Rev. of Chaste Passions: Medieval English Virgin Martyr Legends. Ed. and Trans. Karen A. Winstead. Arthuriana 11.2 (Summer 2001): 88-91.

------. Rev. of Lady of Avalon By Marion Zimmer Bradley. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 120-23.

------. Rev. of Rewriting the Women of Camelot: Arthurian Popular Fiction and Feminism by Ann F. Howey. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

------. Rev. of Women, Reading, and Piety in Late Medieval England. Mary C. Erler. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 92-93

Jesmok, Janet. 'Reading Malory Aloud: Poetic Qualities and Distinctive Voice.' Arthuriana 13.4 (Winter 2003): 86-102.

Abstract: Reading Malory aloud expands the text 's meaningmeaning—its narration, characterization and dialogue, feeling and poetic qualities—bringing us closer to the fifteenth-century audience 's experience and enjoyment of the work. (JJ)

-------. Rev. of Ariadne 's Clue: a Guide to the Symbols of Humankind. By Anthony Stevens. Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 118-120.

-------. 'Comedic Preludes to Lancelot’s ‘Unhappy’ Life in Malory’s Le Morte Darthur. ' Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 26-44.

Abstract: Comic episodes in Malory’s early tales of Lancelot du Lake not only portend later, graver events but also reveal a conscious artist, with a strong sense of character and theme, in touch with a whole work. (JJ)

-------. Rev. of Gender and the Chivalric Community in Malory’s Morte d’Arthur. By Dorsey Armstrong. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 79-80.

-------. Rev. of Legends of Arthur. ed. Richard Barber. Arthuriana 13.2 (Summer 2003): 103-104.

-------. ''Alas! Who may truste thys world?’: Absence of Trust in Malory’s Tale of ‘Balin le Sauvage’. ' Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 25-29.

Abstract: Exploring trust in Malory’s tale of ‘Balin le Sauvage’ reveals a thematically uncertain world that results in uneasy readers and textual instability, suggesting the author’s mistrust of his own world. (JJ)

-------. Rev. of Marriage, Adultery, and Inheritance in Malory’s Morte d’Arthur. By Karen Cherewatuk. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 92-94.

-------. ''The Double Life of Malory’s Lancelot du Lake’. ' Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 81-92.

Abstract: Lancelot, Malory’s paragon of chivalry, harbors a defiant alter-ego first evident only through double adversaries, but later erupting in violent action generally repressed by the chivalric code. Through this dark Other, Malory develops his hero’s subjectivity as he interrogates fifteenth-century knighthood. (JJ)

------. Guiding Lights: Feminine Judgment and Wisdom in Malory's Morte Darthur. Arthuriana 19.3 (Fall 2009): 34-42

Abstract: From minor figures to the Morte’s most important female characters, women assess and judge in matters of social and courtly behavior, chivalry, love, and morality. Furthermore, Malory opens and closes his work with a female model of noble action who influences other characters and his readers while underscoring his major themes. Malory’s treatment of these female characters demonstrates the importance of the feminine in the Morte. (JJ)

Jewers, Caroline AThe Non-Existent Knight: Adventure in Le Roman de Silence. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 87-110.

Abstract: If Marie's Lais present a deliberately configured narrative space that relocates a feminized sense of adventure commesurate with the restricted lives of her heroines, Heldris ' Silence takes the opposite tack by presenting a conservative message though radical feminine aventures. A reconsideration of the names of Heldris ' protagonists helps to unlock further layers of interpretation. (CAJ)

Johnson, David F. ''Men hadde niet Arsatere vonden alsoe goet': Walewein as Healer in the Middle Dutch Arthurian Tradition ' Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001): 39-52.

Abstract: The darling of most Middle Dutch poets, Walewein was imbued with the skills of healing as part of their efforts to rehabilitate his character in the face of a tarnished reputation in the French tradition. (DFJ)

-------. 'Middle Dutch Arthurian Romances: What are They and Why should We read Them?. ' Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 1-2.

-------. Rev. of Lanzelet: Ulrich von Zatzikhoven. Thomas Kerth, trans.. Arthuriana 15.3 (Fall 2005): 117-118.

-------. 'Middle Dutch Arthurian Romances: New Readings.' Arthuriana 17.1 (Spring 2007): 3-4.

-------. 'Bibliography of Scholarship on Middle Dutch Arthurian Romances in Languages Other than Dutch.' Arthuriana 17.1 (Spring 2007): 109-117.

Jost, Jean E. 'The Role of Violence in Aventure: "The Ballad of King Arthur and the King of Cornwall" and "The Turke and Gowin." ' AInt 2.2 (Spring 1988): 47-57.

Abstract: As Erich Auerbach long ago argued, aventure is the very essence of knighthood, the means by which courtly virtues are proved. For Marie de France and Chrétien, aventure is a composite or series of actions in which the heroes or heroines leave the secure, familiar environments of their homes for the Otherworld whose often magical aspects further their journey or set up a specific adventure. Violence seems to be a necessary, but not sufficient ingredient for aventure in the two late Middle English Arthurian romances, 'The Ballad of King Arthur and the King of Cornwall, ' and 'The Turke and Gowin. ' Reasons for this can only be found in the actual social conditions of the fifteenth century, frequently noted to explain Malory 's use of violence. Because life was indeed filled with strife, civil war, lawlessness, and bloodshed, a fifteenth century audience well understood and even appreciated stories now considered brutal. Further desiderata in examining late medieval romances should include deeper explorations into the social history and types of audiences for an explanation of the English taste for violence that is striking in both 'The Ballad of King Arthur and the King of Cornwall ' and 'The Turke and Gowin. ' (JEJ)

-------. Rev. of The Phoenix at the Fountain: Images of Woman and Eternity in Lactantius 's Carmen de Ave Phoenice and the Old English Phoenix. By Carol Falvo Heffernan. QetF 1.4 (Winter 1991): 94-99.

-------. Rev. of T.H. White 's The Once and Future King. By Elisabeth Brewer. Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter 1995): 100-103.

Jurasinski, Stefan. Rev. of Myth in Early Northwest Europe. By Stephen Glosecki. Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010): 122-23. 

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