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Arthurian Interpretations 15.2-16.1, 1.1-4.2;

Quondam et Futurus: A Journal of Arthurian Interpretations 1.1-3.4

Arthuriana 4.1-present



Kalinke, Marianne E. Rev. of Der Stricker: Daniel of the Blossoming Valley (Daniel von dem Blühenden Tal). Trans. Michael Resler. QetF 1.3 (Fall 1991): 89-91.

-------. Rev. of Chivalry in Twelfth-Century Germany: The Works of Hartmann von Aue. By W.H. Jackson. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 104-105.

-------. Rev. of The Arthur of the Germans: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval German and Dutch Literature. Ed. By W.H. Jackson and S.A. Ranawake. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 122-123.

Kapelle, Rachel. "Merlin's Prophecies, Malory's Lacunae" Arthuriana 19.2 (Summer 2009): 58-81.

Abstract: In The Tale of King Arthur, conflict between foreknowledge and the codes of behavior characters follow generates odd gaps surrounding prophecies of the inevitable. (RK)

Kaplan, Leslie. 'Quest-Based Learning for the Round Table. ' Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 19-23.

Abstract: Problem-based learning strategies become quest-based learning strategies in the Arthurian classroom and at Arthurian sites in Britain. (LK)

Kaufman, Amy S.. 'The Law of the Lake: Malory’s Sovereign Lady.' Arthuriana17.3 (Fall 2007): 56-73.

Abstract: Nynyve challenges preconceptions about women in romance by acting out her desires in the Morte Darthur without being forced to exist in its margins. (ASK)

-------.'Guenevere Burning'  Arthuriana 20.1 (Spring 2010): 76-94.

Abstract:Reading for Guenevere’s desires within both historical and theoretical frameworks can reawaken the pleasures of Malory’s Morte Darthur for feminist critics. (ASK)


Kaylor, Noel Harold, Jr. 'Teaching Diversity of Medieval Thought in Undergraduate Courses.' AInt 4.1 (Fall 1989): 32-42.

Abstract: Discussion of Chrétien's Yvain and Hartmann's Iwein reveals two sets of literary conventions, showing that the diversity of medieval thought and behavior was developed in many different ways. The term geographical can include as component elements, therefore, parallel developments in linguistic, cultural, and political aspects of the regions of medieval Europe which would later become France and Germany. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the national characteristics of France and Germany were beginning to develop and even the conventions of amour courtois and the Tugend System, which indicate the diverging literary concerns of authors in these regions, can help undergraduate students begin to form a more realistic picture of the European Middle Ages by exposing the notion of uniformity of thought and behavior during the period as a myth. (NHK, Jr.)

Keene, Katie. 'Cherchez Eupheme': The Evil Queen in Le Roman de Silence Arthuriana 14.3 (Fall 2004): 3-22.

Abstract: In Le Roman de Silence the evil queen, Eufeme, is often dismissed as yet another example of medieval misogyny, but Eufeme can also be seen as a character who is employed purposefully to explore two of the poem's themes: the debate between Nature and Nurture and the question of the integrity of King Ebain's rule. (KK)

------. The Dunfermline Vita of St. Margaret of Scotland: Hagiography as an Articulation of Hereditary Rights. Arthuriana 19.3 (Fall 2009): 43-61

Abstract: The unique and purposefully placed narratives in the Dunfermline Vita of St. Margaret of Scotland articulate the hereditary claim of the kings of Scotland to a Scoto-Northumbrian realm by associating St. Margaret's husband, Malcolm III, with previous Anglo-Saxon rulers of Northumbria in terms of his noble character and martyr's death. (CK)

Keita, Maghan. 'Saracens and Black Knights' Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 65-77.

Abstract: This is an inquiry into the possible cultural constructions of the ‘Saracen’ and the epistemological and historiographic equation of the Saracen as Moor, African, and even ‘black’ within the body of Arthuriana. (MK)

Keller, Joseph. 'The Ambiguity of Prowess: Knights, Sorceresses, and Enchanted Places--Chiefly in Malory.' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 1-11.

Abstract: When the schemes and foreknowledge of a magician or sorceress and the prowess of a knight are conjoined, seemingly in a common enterprise, an ambiguity often results, a predictable outcome when two equally plausible logics improbably seem to apply at the same time. The ambiguity resulting from this condition of two logics is a perhaps fortuitous reflection of two coexisting and interpenetrating principles of causation in late medieval thought: that of logica moderna and that of medieval Platonism. In the stories of Perceval and Galahad, the two causative principles, the one based on inference and the other on analogy, are separately invoked. The two causative principles, on the other hand, are coexisting in the tales of the youth of Arthur, of Balyn, and of Gareth. Malory's flawed heroes do not transcend the world of cause and effect as the Christ-like Galahad can. Nevertheless, the best of them--especially Balyn--through their individual bravery succeed in converting manipulative constraints on the freedom of their knightly prowess to the service of Providence. (MLD)

-------. 'Paradigm Shifts in the Grail Scholarship of Jessie Weston and R.S. Loomis: A View from Linguistics.' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 10-22.

Abstract: The former reigning research paradigm in Arthurian criticism which assumed that narrative episodes and motifs could be analyzed apart from the narrative framework in which they appear resulted in the paradigmatic shifts we see in the Grail scholarship of Jessie L. Weston and R.S. Loomis. As episodes and motifs were considered apart from narrative frames, they seemed sometimes to conflict--e.g.,graal as dish, platter, or even stone. Such inconsistencies seemingly were reconciled by the imposition of an inclusive frame like the initiation hypothesis. When such a hypothesis was rejected, as Loomis rejected Weston's and his own initiation hypothesis, episodes again seemed to be inconsistent. Contemporary criticism, ofen refusing to dismember texts in this way, has effected a significantly different paradigm shift. (JK)

Kellogg, Judith L . 'Arthurian Tradition in Children’s Literature: Introduction.'Arthuriana 13.2 (Summer 2003): 1-8.

Kelly, Douglas. 'Honor, Debate, and Translatio imperii in Cligés.' Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 33-48.

Abstract: This article treats the subject of honor as it is debated in Chrétien's romance. It deals in particular with the specific ways the topic can be evaluated, with an eye toward audience reaction and even discussion in the medieval court. The relation of honor to translation imperii is also discussed. (DK)

Kelly, Thomas E (with Thomas H. Ohlren). 'The Bodleian Library Slide Collection at Purdue: Guides to Illustrated Prose Lancelot Manuscripts.' Arthuriana 19.4 (Winter 2009): 5-8.

Kelly, Kathleen Coyne. 'Malory's Body Chivalric.' Arthuriana 6.4 (Winter 1996): 52-71.

Abstract: Gaze theory shows us how, at the precise moment that we expect the male body to be most visible, i.e., when under attack, that body is transformed and feminized, thus shielding the masculine 'body chivalric.' (KCK)

-------. 'Malory's Multiple Virgins.' Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 21-29.

Abstract: The story of Lyones and Gareth's courtship in the Morte Darthur dramatizes the difficulty, if not the impossibility, of writing history--of establishing 'what really happened.' The attempt to narrate virginity's substantiation and/or its preservation turns our attention to the inadequacies of narrative itself. (KCK)

-------. Rev. of Gender and Language in Chaucer. By Catherine S. Cox. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 94-96.

-------. Rev. of Gender and Difference in the Middle Ages. By Sharon Farmer and Carol Braun Pasternack, eds. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 84-86.

-------. Rev. of Postcolonial Moves: Medieval Through Modern. By Patricia Ingham and Michelle R. Warren, eds. Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 88-90.

------. Monumentality and the Gaze in Jean Cocteau’s L’Éternel retour (1943) Arthuriana 19.3 (Fall 2009): 62-71

Abstract: One can identify a queer monumentality and a queer gaze in L’Éternel retour, a film based on the Tristan and Iseult legend and made under the aegis of the Vichy Government. By placing Patrice (a modern Tristan played by Jean Marais) so firmly in our desiring gaze, Cocteau offers us a study in fascist homoeroticism. (KCK)

Kelly, Robert L. 'Royal Policy and Malory's Round Table.' Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 43-71.

Abstract: King Arthur's Round Table, as Malory portrays it in 'The Tale of King Arthur', does not exist for the disinterested promotion of chivalric virtue. It is rather an instrument of rule, through which a kingly patron recruits noble retainers to serve the specific, chiefly military, needs of his reign (RLK)

Kennedy, Beverly. 'Notions of Adventure in Malory's Morte Darthur.' AInt 3.2 (Spring 1989): 38-59.

Abstract: Malory's exploration of the meanings of adventure in the first part of the Morte Darthur not only foreshadows the narrative shape of the book to come, from the superb exploits of Arthur and his Round Table knights to the 'wycked day of desteny' which ends his reign, but also establishes the providentialist framework which gives significance to the adventures of King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table. (BK)

-------. Rev. of From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail. By C. Scott Littleton and Linda A. Malcor.Arthuriana 5.3 (Autumn 1995): 127-130.

-------. 'Adultery in Malory's Le Morte Darthur.' Arthuriana 7.4 (Winter 1997): 63-91.

Abstract: Malory handles the theme of adultery in Le Morte d'Arthur as a function of his typology of knighthood. Each type--Heroic, Worshipful and True--has a different understanding of what constitutes knightly honour and has a correspondingly different attitude toward the commission and punishment of adultery. (BK)

-------. Rev. of The Book of Margery Kempe. Ed. Lynn Staley. Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 152-53.

-------.'The Idea of Providence in Malory's Le Morte Darthur.' Arthuriana 11.2 (Summer 2001): 5-19.

Abstract: Malory represents the idea of Providence to his readers in four ways. (BK)

Kennedy, Edward Donald. 'Malory's Guenevere: "A Woman Who Had Grown a Soul."' Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 37-45.

Abstract: At the end of Le Morte Darthur when Lancelot mentions to Guenevere his failure on the Grail Quest, his statement reminds the reader of another failure; Galahad, who had saved so many, had been ulitmately unable to save his father. The role is ironically reserved for Guenevere: the woman who had been the reason for Lancelot's downfall finally leads him to salvation. (EDK)

-------.Rev. of A Companion to Malory By Elizabeth Archibald and A. S. G. Edwards. Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 95-97.

-------. Rev. of Malory: The Life and Times of King Arthur's Chronicler. Christina Hardyment. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 89-91.

Kennedy, Kathleen E. Rev. of Law and the Illicit in Medieval Europe. By Ruth Mao Karras, Joel Kaye, and E. Ann Matter. Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010).

Kerth, Thomas. 'Arthurian Tradition and the Middle Dutch Torec' Arthuriana 17.1 (Spring 2007): 5-31.

Abstract: This essay compares the stock situations in Torec with those found in earlier romances of Chrétien de Troyes and German romanciers in order to demonstrate that the author(s) of Torec was familiar with the topoi of the ‘classical’ Arthurian romances and exploited them. Torec’s vision of the Arthurian world, though not identical to that of the French, German, and Latin romances that preceded it, offers a consistent and continuing development of the genre. (TK)

Khan, Robert Omar. 'Genealogy and Cross-Gendering in Le Roman de Silence and Ariake no Wakare [Parting at Dawn]Arthuriana 12.1 (Spring 2002): 76-84.

AbstractLe Roman de Silence and the twelfth-century Japanese court tale Ariake no Wakare [Parting at Dawn] feature similar constellations of themes, narrativization and reception history. They link aristocratic inheritance anxieties and female-to-male crossdressing with extraordinary musical abilities and services to a sovereign, reflecting parallel preoccupations. (ROK)

Kibler, William W. Rev. of Chrétien de Troyes, Perceval (Le Conte du Graal). By Keith Busby. Critical Guides to French Texts 98. Arthuriana 4.1 (Spring 1994): 88-89.

-------. Rev. of Les Manuscrits de Chrétien de Troyes / The Manuscripts of 
Chrétien de Troyes. Ed. Keith Busby, Terry Nixon, Alison Stones, and Lori 
Walters. Arthuriana 4.3 (Fall 1994): 279-82.

-------. Rev. of Philippe de Remi, Le Roman de la Manekine. Ed. & Trans. Barbara N. Sargent-Baur. Arthuriana 11.2 (Summer 2001): 86-88.

-------. Rev. of A Companion to Chrétien de Troyes. Norris J. Lacy and Joan Tasker Grimbert, eds. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 98-100.

Kindrick, Robert L. 'The Administration of Justice in Malory's Works.' AInt 2.1 (Fall 1987): 63-81.

Abstract: The competing demands of supernatural direction, state welfare, and individual claims account for Malory's groping and often imprecise approach to the administration of justice in the Works. Although his sources explain some of the fatalism that permeates the death of Arthur, and although most of the Works dwell on the ambiguities and inaccuracies in the human administration of justice, the 'Tale of Lucius' reflects an ideal. It contains evidence of an alternative way in which divine justice could be executed rationally in an orderly and formalistic world. (RLK)

-------., Ed. with the assistance of Michele R. Crepeau. "William Matthews on Caxton and Malory."Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 3-133.

Abstract: Malory's great work on chivalry now exists in two versions, Malory Manuscript and Caxton's Le Morte Darthur. Since 1947, when Eugene Vinaver's landmark edition of the Malory manuscript appeared, many scholars have argued for the pre-eminence of the manuscript version. It has also been suggested that Caxton himself made the major changes between the manuscript and the printed work. In a review of the available evidence Matthews concludes that the characterization of Caxton has been unfair and that likely only Malory himself or a person who had read the same sources could have made the revisions in Book V ("The Roman War") that appear in Le Morte Darthur. Coupled with new discoveries about Caxton's possession of the Malory Manuscript, Matthews' arguments suggest that it was a rejected text. (RLK)

Kinoshita, Sharon. 'Two for the Price of One: Courtly Love and Serial Polygamy in the Lais of Marie de France.' Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 33-55.

Abstract: The representation of repudiation and remarriage in Fresne and Eliduc constitutes a vindication of feudal dynastic politics over the church's efforts to regulate aristocratic marriages.(SK)

-------. 'Male-Order Brides: Marriage, Patriarchy, and Monarchy in the Roman de SilenceArthuriana 12.1 (Spring 2002): 64-75.

Abstract: Continuing her previous work on the Roman de Silence's conservative politics, the author analyzes two specific mechanisms through which King Ebain enhances monarchical power: exchanging an adulterous, exogamous wife for a chaste, endogamous one; and dispossessing the earl of Chester, a great baron of the realm.(SK)

-------. 'Chrétien de Troyes's Cligés in the Medieval Mediterranean.' Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 33-48.

Abstract: This article rereads Cligés in the context of medieval Mediterranean history, particularly the way the place names evoked subverted by the text's claims for translation studii. (SK)

Kirchhoff, Frederick. '"The glory and freshness of a dream": Arthurian Romance as Reconstructed Childhood.' Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 3-13.

Abstract: Morris's discovery of the Morte Darthur marked a turning point in his artistic development; his subsequent loss of interest in Arthurian romance is fully as revealing as his initial enthusiasm for it. (FK)

Kirk, Elizabeth D. '"Wel Bycommes Such Craft Upon Cristmasse": the Festive and the Hermeneutic in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight .' Arthuriana 4.2 (Summer 1994): 93-137.

Abstract: The Christmas setting of SGGK offers a context for examining the poem's relationship to the decorative and celebrative in late medieval art and for its analysis of the conflicts within the chivalric ideal; the presence of three mutually-exclusive verdicts on the poem's action is central to its portrayal of how the meaning of human action is constructed. (EDK)

Klein, Stacy S. Rev. of Motherhood and Mothering in Ango-Saxon England. By Mary Dockray-Miller. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 124-126.

Kleis, John Christopher. Rev. of Tristan und Islode. By Richard Wagner. Arthuriana 10.2 (Summer 2000): 116-18.

-------. Rev. of The Life of Sir Aglovale de Galis. By Clemence Housman. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 120-21.

-------. Rev. of A Pagan Spoiled: Sex and Character in Wagner's Parsifal. Anthony Winterbourne. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 109-110.

Kletke, Daniel. 'Richard Wagner's Creative Processes: Parsifal.' Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 83-92.

Abstract: Richard Wagner's sources influenced and shaped his creative prosses, as seen in his use of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parsifal. (DK)

Kline, Daniel. Rev. of Bodies and Disciplines: Intersections of Literature and History 
in Fifteenth-Century England. Ed. Barbara A. Hanawalt and David Wallace. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 149-51.

Knepper, Wendy. 'Theme and Thesis in Le Chevalier de la Charrete.' Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 54-68.

Abstract: Critics have traditionally treated the narrator's addresses as evidence to assess whether Chrétien promoted the ideal of courtly love in the Charrete. If we consider the use of appropriation and recoil movements in the total text, the operation of the will emerges as the dominant theme of the text. This theme is considered in the context of the parallel but contrasting pacts formed by Lancelot in the service of Guinevere and Chrétien in the service of Marie de Champagne. (WK)

Knight, Stephen. 'The Arctic Arthur. ' Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011): 59-89.

Abstract: Arthur’s northern adventures are little recognized. Early hints and seventeenth-century developments led in the later 1700s to the northern Gothic Arthur of Hole, Betham, and Thelwall. More conservative was the king’s nineteenth-century representation by Milman; and his apotheosis, and conclusion, came in the arctic adventurer of Bulwer Lytton’s King Arthur. (SK)

Kooper, Erik. Rev. of Roman van Walewein and Ferguut. David F. Johnson and Geert H.M. Claassens, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 155-157.

Koppelman, Kate. Rev. of St. Katherine of Alexandria, Texts and Contexts in Western Medieval Europe. Jacqueline Jenkins and Katherine J. Lewis, eds. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 95-96.

-------. Rev. of Five Interpolated Romances from the Lancelot Compilation. David F. Johnson and Geert H. M. Claassens, eds.. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 73-74.

-------. Rev. of Violent Passions: Managine Love in the Old French Verse Romance. By Tracy Adams. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 73-74.

Krause, Kathy M. Rev. of The Chansons de Geste in the Age of Romance: Political Fictions. By Sarah Kay. Arthuriana 7.4 (Winter 1997): 108-110.

-------. 'Li Mireor du Monde': Specularity in the Roman de SilenceArthuriana 12.1 (Spring 2002): 85-91.

Abstract: Silence, twice called 'le miroir du monde,' embodies both positive and negative symbolic aspects of the medieval mirror. She exemplifies courtly and chivalric virtue, and reveals hidden truths, but she is also a 'miroir trompeur,' reflecting surface appearances while hiding her real identity.(KMK)

-------. Rev. of The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Romance. Roberta L. Krueger, ed. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 96-98.

Krier, Theresa M. Rev. of Chaucer and the Trivium: The Mindsong of the Canterbury Tales. By J. Stephen Russell. Arthuriana 10.3 (Fall 2000): 119-120.

Kruger, Steven F. Rev. of Varieties of Religious Conversion in the Middle Ages. Ed. James Muldoon. Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 144-46.

Labbie, Erin FThe Specular Image of the Gender-Neutral Name: Naming Silence in Le Roman de Silence. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 63-77.

Abstract: In this article, the author analyzes the relationship between naming and identity by reading Le Roman de Silence in the context of feminist and psychoanalytic theories. Silence's subjectivity is constituted by, and challenges, notions of a stable signifier. (EFL)

Lacy, Norris J. 'Cligès and Courtliness.' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 18-24.

Abstract: The courtly ethic that blinds characters to reality and morality may be approved by the court, but scarcely by the narrator or the reader; indeed, in Cligès, as later in the Conte del Graal, 'courtly ethic' is something of a contradiction in terms; it has little or nothing to do with ethics. Alexandre is often foolish, but that may well be because he, like Perceval after him, is at times emulating behavior (accepted by the court) that leads inevitably to foolishness. He is finally more admirable, from several points of view, than is Cligès, and the personal impediments (timidity, etc.) facing the older generation are no more to be criticized than is the highly cultivated, artificial, and finally inauthentic social code imposed by the court. Chrétien never explicitly condemns courtliness in this romance, or in his others, but the heavily ironic presentation of character and event throughout and the equivocating conclusion of the work must at the very least throw doubt on the value and validity of things courtly. (NJL)

-------. 'The Arthurian Ideal in Pierre Sala's Tristan.' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 1-9.

Abstract: In Pierre Sala's Tristan, the Arthurian world is a faded image of its former glory--or perhaps 'image' is not the proper word, because that remains intact: Arthur is alive and well, and he is praised and revered, with no hint of authorial irony to undermine his reputation. It is instead his system, not his reputation, that is passing. It is the reality, the essence, that has changed, although the inhabitants of this world continue to take themselves seriously, never questioning their purpose or values. King Arthur and his knights, his Round Table, and his chivalrous enterprise now provide entertainment and excitement, but little else. And that may be the most revealing conclusion that we can draw from a reading of Pierre Sala's Tristan, which along with a good many other texts of the late Middle Ages and the sixteenth century, dramatizes the twilight of Arthur as a force for good and right in the world. (NJL)

-------. 'Arthurian Film and the Tyranny of Tradition.' AInt 4.1 (Fall 1989): 75-85.

Abstract: Audience response is very complex in the case of Arthurian themes, whether in literary or cinematic form. Even leaving specialists aside, the general population includes a remarkable number of people, either knowledgeable aficionados or romantics nostalgic for a presumably glorious past, who are eternally fascinated with King Arthur. They offer a ready-made audience for almost any Arthurian text or film, but they may also have responses shaped heavily by attachment to the themes. If we are to speak seriously of Arthurian films, we must look at the vehicle with some detachment: if Rohmer's or Romero's or Boorman's or Bresson's or any other were not about Arthur, would we admire it as much? Most often, the answer would be no. Should it ever be yes, we would have a representative of a rare breed: a good Arthurian film that is also, quite simply, a good film. (NJL)

-------. 'Medieval French Arthurian Literature in English.' QetF 1.3 (Fall 1991): 55-74.

Abstract: There is welcome evidence that medievalists have at long last begun to accept translation as a legitimate and respectable literary art and scholarly enterprise. There are at least two explanations for this attitude. The first is that it reflects a purist's respect for the original text. The development of literary criticism in medieval studies has done much during the past twenty or so years to confer legitimacy on the translator's craft and to create the 'market' for medieval literary texts in English. These and other factors have combined to multiply translations, particularly during the past decade, to the point that there is now some need to survey their availability, indicating what has been done, what is in progress, and in some instances the differences among the several translations of the same text. This discussion of French Arthurian literature in translation gives translators and texts indicated in the most economical way possible, followed by full bibliographical information in the list of references. (NJL)

-------. I mergent Direct Discourse in the Vulgate Cycle.' Arthuriana 4.1 (Spring 1994): 19-29.

Abstract: The Vulgate Cycle makes extensive use of I mergent direct discourse,'a stylistic procedure that consists of frequent shifts - even in mid-sentence - from narration or indirect discourse to direct discourse and sometimes back again, often in situations where the points of shift are impossible to determine. The effect of the method is to support other efforts within the Cycle to merge all voices into a single overarching one: the voice of the conte. (NJL)

-------. Rev. of Arthurian Literature XIII. Eds., James P. Carley and Felicity Riddy. Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter): 105-106.

-------. Rev. of The Romance of the Rose or of Guillaume de Dole(Roman de la Rose ou de Guillaume de Dole). By Jean Renart. Ed. and Trans. By Regina Psaki. Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 80-81.

-------. Rev. of Perceval: The Story of the Grail. By Chretien de Troyes. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 133-35.

-------. Rev. of Jean Renart and the Art of Romance. By Nancy Vine Durling, Ed. Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 146-47.

------. Rev. of Lecture d' I rec': Traces epiques et troubadouresques dan le conte de Chretien de Troyes. By Claudia Seebass-Linggi. Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 82-83.

------. Rev. of On Art and Nature and Other Essays. By Eugéne Vinaver. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 146-147.

------. Rev. of Conjointure arthurienne: Actes de la 'Classe da xcellence' de la Chaire Frencqui 1998. Juliette Dor, ed. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 91-92.

-------. 'The Da Vinci Code: Dan Brown and The Grail That Never Was.' Arthuriana 14.3 (Fall 2004): 81-93.

Abstract: Dan Brown's bestseller, The Da Vinci Code, has enthralled many readers, but many others have pointed out his errors and raised objections to his dubious conjectures. Of particular interest to Arthurians is Brown's conspiracy theory (appropriated from other sources) concerning the Grail, but a discussion of that subject also requires consideration of his presentation of Church history and of the role that art plays in the elaboration of the Grail theory. (NJL)

-------. 'The Uses of Middle Dutch Arthuriana' Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 3-12.

Abstract: Middle Dutch Arthuriana provide a rich perspective on other Arthurian literatures while offering texts that hold great intrinsic interest. This article discusses the Dutch Lancelot Compilation and the romance of Walewein in order to illustrate both their own literary value and their importance in any consideration of adaptation, cyclification, and the establishment of dialogues among and within texts. (NJL)

-------. "Arthur in the Graduate Seminar." Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 46-52.

Abstract: A graduate seminar in Arthurian literature is fundamentally comparative in nature, and may provide essential pre-professional development for students. (NJL)

-------. "Medieval McGuffins: The Arthurian Model." [The Round Table] Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 53-64.

-------. Rev. of The Da Vinci Code. Ron Howard, dir. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 83-85.

------. Observations on Authority Arthuriana 19.3 (Fall 2009): 72-79.

Abstract: This essay offers brief comments on four works (two of them Arthurian) that use different methods—from objects and symbols to sensory perception and finally to letter writing—of validating events or texts or establishing truth (though in some cases the result is instead serious misunderstanding). (NJL)

Lagorio, Valerie M. 'Foreword.' Interpretations: A Journal of Idea, Analysis, and Criticism: AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): v.

Lambdin, Laura. 'Swinburne's Early Arthurian Poems: Shadows of His Mature Vision.' QetF 3.4 (Winter 1993): 63-76.

Abstract: Even in his earlier Arthurian works, Swinburne's rebellion against the moral values of his day is evident. When the poet gained independence from Morris's conceptions of the medieval period, he was able to produce two great Arthurian works, Tristram of Lyonesse and The Tale of Balen, which show their fidelity to the Middle Ages, while they simultaneously reflect Swinburne's understanding of the human condition. Deviating from the conceptions of other Victorian writers, Swinburne creates a medieval world in which the characters gain praise if they accept destinies that seem immoral from a Christian perspective. (LL)

Larrington, Carolyne. Rev. of  Magic and the Supernatural in Medieval English Romance. By Corinne Sanders. Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011).

Laskaya, Anne. 'Introduction: Rhetorical Approaches to Malory's Morte Darthur.' Co-arthured by Ann Dobyns. Arthuriana 13.3 (Fall 2003): 3-9.

Leckie, R. William, Jr. 'Mutable Substance: The Diamond Helmet and the Death of Gahmuret in Wolfram's Parzival.' AInt 3.2 (Spring 1989): 23-37.

Abstract: Like Chrétien's Perceval, Wolfram's Gahmuret fails to recognize the patterning of events. Circumstance has conspired in wondrous fashion to duplicate the Aeneas paradigm, but he cannot discern its outlines. There is no suggestion that specific inferences regarding the Grail should have been drawn. Gahmuret's knowledge and predilections clearly precluded such extrapolation. What was asked of him had been demanded of other romance heroes, namely to acknowledge incipient design as evidence of the referentiality of secular activity. Wolfram's use of very familiar paradigms permitted him to manipulate audience expectations in a manner calculated to elicit a judgment. (RWL, Jr.)

Leonard, James S. Rev. of Mark Twain in the Margins: The Quarry Farm Marginalia and
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. By Joe B. Fulton. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 127-129.

Le Saux, Françoise H.M. I xorcising Exclusion: The Figure of Merlin in Hersart de la Villemarque's Barzaz Breiz.' Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 43-54.

Abstract: The Breton Merlin cycle maps out the social and psychological causes of the prophet's marginal status, which leads to his being dehumanized. Resolution depends on Merlin's explicit recognition of vulnerability. (F.H.M. LeS.)

------. Rev. of Writing the Future, Laæamon’s Prophetic History. By Kelley M. Wickham-Crowley. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 82-83.

Lewis, Celia M. Rev. of Text and Territory: Geographical Imaginations in the European Middle Ages. By Sylvia Tomasch and Sealy Gilles. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 130-32.

Lidaka, Juris G. Rev. of A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 1050-1500. Vol. 9: XXII, XXIII and XXIV. Gen.Ed. Albert E. Hartung. Arthuriana 5.1 (Autumn 1995): 88-91.

Lifshitz, Felice. Rev. of Queens, Regents and Potentates. Ed. Theresa M. Vann. Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 75-76.

Lim, Gary. Rev. of Sexuality and Its Queer Discontents in Middle English Literature. By Tison Pugh. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 87.

Littleton, C. Scott [and Linda A. Malcor]. 'Some Notes on Merlin.' Arthuriana 5.3 (Autumn 1995): 87-95.

Abstract: The image of Merlin that surfaces in the medieval romances is a complex syncretism reflecting Celtic, Christian, Alano-Sarmatian, and possibly historical overlays.The figures of Merlin and the Dame du Lac may ultimately derive from a common, probably female, prototype. (CSL/LAM)

Liu, Yin. Rev. of ‘Harken to Me’: Middle English Romances in Translation. Special edition of Medieval Forum, updated 2009. By George W. Tuma and Dinah Hazell. Arthuriana 20.4 (Winter 2010): 107.

Lloyd-Morgan, Ceridwen. Rev. of The Welsh King and His Court. eds T.M. Charles-Edwards, Morfyyd E. Owen and Paul Russell. Arthuriana 13.2 (Summer 2003): 107-108.

Longley, Anne P.. 'Guinevere as Lord.' Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 49-62.

Abstract: The two most important women in Lancelot's life, Guinevere and the Lady of the Lake, are his 'female lord' and his 'female master.' Their female roles are examined in relation to the love theme and in the context of decoding female authority. (APL)

Looper, Jennifer E. Rev. of Women Readers and the Ideology Gender in Old French Verse Romance. By Roberta L. Krueger. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 93-94.

------. 'Gender, Genealogy, and the "Story of the Three Spindles" in the Queste del Saint Graal.Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 49-66.

Abstract: The 'story of the three spindles' and the tale of Perceval's sister's redemptive efforts function in the Queste del Saint Graal as a locus of resistance to this work's misogynistic program, characterized by the construction of a reformed society from which women are excluded. (JEL)

------. 'L’Estoire de Merlin and the Mirage of Patrilineage.Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 63-85.

Abstract: The Merlin contains the Lancelot-Grail Cycle's most extensive re-evaluation of father figures in both the aristocratic family and literary lineages. The author's simultaneous acceptance and dismissal of male hegemony as a stabilizing force in these two domains reveals his ambivalent attitude toward the subject. (JEL)

Lowney, Gregory C. [Poem] 'Astolat.' QetF 1.4 (Winter 1991): 70.

Lumpkin, Bernard. 'The Once and Future Course: Teaching the Arthurian Legend.' (The Round Table: Teaching King Arthur at Harvard.) Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 130-133.

Lupack, Alan. 'Merlin in America.' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 64-74.

Abstract: From the earliest to the most modern treatments of Merlin in American literature, authors have taken considerable liberties with the traditional character. Merlin is often, particularly after the Civil War, used as a focal point for questioning the possibility of achieving the ideal represented by Camelot. The portrayal of Merlin in works by American authors beginning with Lambert A. Wilmer (1827), Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee, Melville's Billy Budd, James Branch Cabell's Something About Eve, Edward Arlington Robinson's Merlin, Thomas Berger's Arthur Rex, Andre Norton's Merlin's Mirror, and Roger Zelazny's The Last Defender of Camelot has ranged from Twain's bumbling enchanter to Zelazny's misguided idealist. The character of Merlin in the works of many American authors is used as a means of examining the inevitable distance between the perfection that men may envision and the reality that will keep them from achieving it. (HHP)

-------. 'The Arthurian Legend in America: A Moderated Discussion on "Arthurnet."' Arthuriana 4.4 (Winter 1994): 291-97.

Abstract: In an internet discussion on Arthurnet from mid-January to the end of February, 1994, respondents commented especially on two questions: whether there is evidence to support making a distinction between the British and the American Arthurian traditions and why the Arthurian legend is such a force in American popular culture. (AL)

------. 'The Once and Future King: The Book That Grows Up.' Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 103-114.

Abstract: T.H. White's The Once and Future King is an experiment in artistic structure, in which the book grows up with the characters. As characters age, genres change from children's story tobildungsroman to romance to tragedy. The Book of Merlyn was intended as the final stage of this process, a philosophical dialogue which reflected upon all the whole of Arthur's life and experience. (ACL)

------. Rev. of Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britian: The Legends Of King Arthur and Robin Hood. By Stephanie L. Barczewski. Arthuriana 10.4 (Winter 2000): 65-66.

-------. Rev. of Blessed Bastard: A Novel of Sir Galahad. By Ruth P.M. Lehmann. Arthuriana 10.4 (Winter 2000): 82-83.

-------. Rev. of King Arthur on Film: New Essays on Arthurian Cinema. Ed. Kevin J. Hart. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 137-39.

-------. Rev. of The Arthurian handbook,2nd ed. Ed. Norris Lacy and Geoffrey Ashe with Debra N. Mancoff. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 117-18.

-------. 'Introduction.' Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001): 1-2.

-------. Rev. of To the Chapel Perilous by Naomi Mitchison, Arthur, the Bear of Britain by Edward Frankland, and Kinsmen of the Grail by Dorothy James Roberts. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001).

-------. Rev. of A History of Arthurian Scholarship. Norris J. Lacy. ed. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 100-102.

-------. Rev. of The Magician of Avalon: Tales of Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table. Con. and Dir. Stacy Klein, Jennifer Johnson and Richard Van Schouwen. Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 126.

-------. 'Introduction.' Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011): 3-4.

-------. 'Popular Images Derived from Tennyson’s Arthurian Poems.' Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011): 90-118.

Abstract: Imagery based on Tennyson’s Arthurian poems appeared frequently in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Britain and America. Because of the popularity of Tennyson’s verse and the perception that he was not only a great poet but also a moral one, this imagery was widely disseminated both through illustrated editions of his works and through its infusion into popular culture and daily life. (AL)

Lupack, Barbara Tepa. 'F. Scott Fitzgerald's "Following of a Grail."' Arthuriana 4.4 (Winter 1994): 324-47.

Abstract: F. Scott Fitzgerald incorporated traditional medieval and Arthurian motifs into his novels and short fiction. The wasteland and the grail quest are particularly prominent in Fitzgerald's first novel, This Side of Paradise, and in The Great Gatsby. A contemporary Merlin is the main character in 'O Russet Witch!,' one of the fantasies in the Tales of the Jazz Age. Fitzgerald's love for medievalism and for the Arthurian legends also carried over into his personal life. (BTL)

-------. Rev. of A Knight in Camelot. Dir. Roger Young. Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 167-69.

-------. Rev. of Modern Retellings of Chivalric Texts. Ed. By Gloria Allaire. Arthuriana 10.3 (Fall 2000): 101-102.

-------. 'Introduction'. Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001): 1-2.

-------. Rev. of The House of Pendragon, Book I: The Firebrand; Book II: The Recruit. By Debra A. Kemp. Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 123.

-------. Rev. of The Magician of Avalon: Tales of Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table. Con. and Dir. Stacy Klein, Jennifer Johnson and Richard Van Schouwen. Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 126.

Luyster, Amanda. Rev. of Medieval Allegory and the Building of the New Jerusalem. By Ann R. Meyer. Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 73-75.

-------. Rev. of Myth, Montage, and Visuality in Late Medieval Manuscript Culture: Christine de Pizan's 'Epistre Othea. Marilynn Desmond and Pamela Sheingorn. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 87-88.

Lynch, Andrew. 'Malory Moralis?: The Disarming of Le Morte Darthur, 1800-1918,' Arthuriana 9.4 (Winter 1999): 81-93.

Abstract: Nineteeth-century reviews of Malory were consistently antipathetic to his fight scenes. They abridged and misleadingly moralized the fights to let the Morte become an examplar of Victorian 'chivalry.' (AL)

------. 'A Tale of ‘Simple’ Malory and the Critics' Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 10-15.

Abstract: Malory criticism from Saintsbury to Vinaver and C.S. Lewis sought increasingly complex and thoughtful ways to reconcile a liking for the Morte with its perceived lack of an intelligent or respectable author. (AL)

MacBain, Danielle Morgan. 'Love Versus Politics: Competing Paradigms of Chivalry in Malory's Morte Darthur.' QetF 2.3 (Fall 1992): 22-30.

Abstract: The ideal of the Tristram section of the Morte Darthur is a literary love-ethos, emphasizing the relationship between the knight and his lady, whereas the ideal presented elsewhere in the Morte is essentially a moral and political one. The chief components of the Malorian ideal are the moral imperatives of the chivalric oath and the loyalty and reciprocity owed by members of the Round Table to Arthur and each other as participants in the feudal system. The love-ethos of the 'Tristram' is governed by the 'love and prowess' theme--i.e. that the lady is the knight's inspiration, and his deeds of prowess are performed either to win or keep her favor, or because the thought of her so greatly ennobles and inspires him. While this theme is most clearly articulated in the 'Tristram,' it appears elsewhere in the Morte, but is always shown as destructive. (DMM)

Machan, Tim William. Rev. of Old English Heroic Poems and the Social Life of Texts. Ed. John D. Niles. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 108-109.

Mahoney, Dhira B. 'Hermits in Malory's Morte Darthur: The Fiction and the Reality.' AInt 2.1 (Fall 1987): 1-26.

Abstract: A serious study of the significance of hermits and anchorites in the Morte Darthur must begin with a definition of the nature of the eremetical life and investigation into actual fifteenth-century English hermits, in order to estimate Malory's knowledge and understanding of them. Hermits and anchorites are separated souls, living on the margins of society, yet wielding surprising power and influence within it. Though Malory's hermits are to some extent based on those of his French sources, there are significant differences. His hermits live on the margins of knightly society, aiding, guiding, and assisting them to return to it; however, they themselves are 'otherwyse dysposed,' heaven-directed. Lancelot and his fellows become hermits after their knightly society has collapsed, but their redirection of self is sincere, arduous, commendable. (MLD)

-------. Rev. of The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief. Richard Barber. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 78-81.

Malcor, Linda A. [and C. Scott Littleton]. 'Some Notes on Merlin.' Arthuriana 5.3 (Autumn 1995): 87-95.

Abstract: The image of Merlin that surfaces in the medieval romances is a complex syncretism reflecting Celtic, Christian, Alano-Sarmatian, and possibly historical overlays.The figures of Merlin and the Dame du Lac may ultimately derive from a common, probably female, prototype. (CSL/LAM)

Malcor, Linda A. 'Merlin and the Pendragon: King Arthur's Draconarius.' Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 3-13.

Abstract: Some scholars have argued that Merlin exhibits druid-like characteristics, but the medieval tradition of Merlin as the bearer of Arthur's dragonhead standard casts the prophet–turned–wizard in a very warlike role. (LAM).

Mancoff, Debra N. 'Rex Quondam Rexque Ens.' QetF 2.3 (Fall 1992): 55-68.

Abstract: Academics, teachers, and scholars are self- appointed guardians of the Arthurian materials. We strive for an informed guardianship, and part of that process of preservation and interpretation is organization. We locate works and put them in the center or at the margins. The locus informs our discourse. But that locus is unstable. In a vital tradition, the boundaries must be permeable, allowing new works to join the venerable standards, to rout the old, to replace the outmoded. If the Arthurian legend is a popular creation, received and perpetuated by a public that shapes it to its needs through demand, we as scholars experience a hegemonic disclocation. We are not in the center of development, we're on the margins, observing the tradition as it unfolds in our own generation. The vox populi is the voice of the living legend and listening to its messages can offer a new pattern for thinking about the making of the tradition, in the present and in history. (DNM)

-------. 'Introduction: William Morris and King Arthur.' Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 1-2.

-------. 'Problems with the Pattern: William Morris's Arthurian Imagery.' Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 55-68.

Abstract: An examination of William Morris's role in the Arthurian revival in Victorian imagery and the slippage between his involvement with the legend and our desire to impose an Arthurian pattern on his life and work. (DNM)

-------. Rev. of Edward Burne-Jones: Victorian Artist-Dreamer. By Stephen Wildman and John Christian (with essays by Alan Crawford and Laurence Des Cars). Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 160-62.

Mandel, Jerome. Rev. of Art and Context in Late Medieval English Narrative. Ed. Robert R. Edwards. Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter 1995): 113-17.

-------. 'The Idea of Family in Chrétien de Troyes and Sir Thomas Malory.' Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 90-99.

Abstract: The construction of family in each author's work does not reflect historical accuracy but aesthetic need. For Malory, the family provides the source of political antagonism and narrative tension that invigorates the romance. For Chrétien, the family provides an ideal alternative to chivalric adventurism that deconstructs the ideal of romance. (JM)

Margolis, Nadia . Rev. of Joan of Arc: The Warrior Saint. By Steven W. Richey. Arthuriana 15.2 (Summer 2005): 79-80.

-------. Rev. of Christine de Pizan's Changing Opinion: A Quest for Certainty in the Midst of Chaos. By Douglas Kelly. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 78-80.

Marshall, David W.. Rev. of The Erotic in the Literature of Medieval Britain. By Amanda Hopkins and Cory James Rushton, eds. Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 122.

Marshall, John.. Rev. of Robin Hood: The Early Poems. By Thomas H. Ohlgren. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 85.

Martin, Carol A.N. 'Hoel-Hearted Loyalty and Ironization in Geoffrey's Historia regum Britanniae.' Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 21-48.

Abstract: Comparison of Wace's and Geoffrey of Monmouth's versions of Hoel's speech in support of Arthur's Roman campaign highlights the irony embedded in the high-sounding but deliberately irresponsible rhetoric typical of Geoffrey's belligerents. (CANM)

Martin, Thomas L. 'Merlin, Magic, and the Meta-fantastic: The Matter of That Hideous Strength. ' Arthuriana 21.1 (Spring 2011):66-84.

Abstract: Merlin is important to the revival of Arthurian and mythic elements in a modern context fictionalized by C.S. Lewis in That Hideous Strength. But Merlin is especially key to understanding the meta-fantastic elements of the story, including the narrative method that bridges science fiction material with that of the fantastic as well as addresses a number of linguistic concerns about the inefficacy of literary language and the difficulty of awakening poetic faith in a modern audience. (TM)

Marvin, Julia. Rev. of A Companion to Wace. By F. H. M. Le Saux. Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 8.

-------. Rev. of La3amon’s Brut and the Anglo-Norman Vision of History. By Kenneth J. Tiller. Arthuriana 20.4 (Winter 2010): 108-09.

Matthews, David. Rev. of Printing in the Middle Ages. By Siân Echard. Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010).

Mathewson, Jeanne T. 'Sir Gawain and the Medieval School of Comedy.' AInt 15.2 (Spring 1984): 42-52.

Abstract: Gawain's challenge, quest, and encounter provide yet another example of the rite de passage familiar in medieval romance. But rather than succeeding like Perceval, Gawain proves his manhood by his cowardice rather than his bravery. When one sees Gawain's adventure as a humiliation into the human predicament, one detects its pervading spirit. In this respect Sir Gawain and the Green Knightis both traditionally Christian and classically comic. Gawain is purged of the sin of pride and learns the lesson of humility. But while he blushes and mourns, the court laughs in complete approval. The members of the court are I mbracing life' in a way that Gawain has not yet come to accept. Theirs is a comic awareness which Gawain has not yet achieved. (JTM)

-------. 'Displacement of the Feminine in Golagros and Gawane and the Awntyrs off Arthure.' AInt 1.2 (Spring 1987): 23-28.

Abstract: The poet of Golagros and Gawane has constructed an ostensibly complete world, one made up of masculine abstractions. But has the feminine been eliminated from this world? The feminine has been reduced to principles and incorporated into the figures of Arthur and Gawain. Arthur in archetypical terms is the witch: imperious, jealous, unable to find health or rest until she subdues every rival, no matter how remote and unthreatening. Gawain, at the opposite end of the feminine spectrum, is the virtuous and very attractive lady: gracious, gentle, mollifying. The Awntyrs off Arthur is seemingly not so thoroughgoing in its elimination of feminine influence. Indeed, the initial protracted scene consists largely of a dialogue between Guinivere and the ghost of her mother burning in hell for breaking a solemn vow about which only she and Guinevere know. As in Golagros and Gawane the sexual or romantic love motive has been eliminated. Galeron's lady brings him into Arthur's court so that he can challenge the unjust seizure of his lands. She supports her man; he does not fight for love of her, and her successful appeal to Guinevere's sympathy places both ladies in a new, modern, bourgeois position of subservience and furtherance of the importance of working out ethical problems among men. (JTM)

-------. Rev. of The Story of Meriadoc, King of Cambria. Ed. and trans. Mildred Leake Day. AInt 4.2 (Spring 1990): 81-84.

Mathis, Andrew E. Rev. of The Grail Legend in Modern Literature. By John B. Marino. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 79-80.

Mattiacci, Angela. Rev. of Erotic Dawn-Songs of the Middle Ages. Voicing the Lyric Lady. By Gale Sigal. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 136.

Matthews, John. 'Introduction: Modern and Post-Modern Arthurian Literature.' Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 3-4.

-------.Rev. of 'Sir Kay's Quest.' By Cherith Baldry. Arthuriana 7.4 (Winter 1997): 128-29.

-------. Rev. of Arthurius--A Quest for Camelot. By D. F. Carroll. Arthuriana 7.4 (Winter 1997): 129.

Matthews, Caitlin. Rev. of The Arthuriad of Catamandus. By Fredrick Lees. Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 105-106.

Mayer, Hartwig. Rev. of La representation de la femme dans le 'novelle' allemande du mayen age tardif: Description de quelques schemas normatifs de l'imaginaire masculine et patriarcal. By Joell Fuhrmann. Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 91-92.

-------. A Survey of Recent Scholarship in German (2). Arthuriana 12.1 (Spring 2002): 141-152.

McCash, June Hall. Rev. of Medieval Women in their Communities. Ed. Diane Watt. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 103-105.

-------. I nsemble poent bien durer': Time and Timeless in the Chevrefoil of Marie de France.' Arthuriana 9.4 (Winter 1999): 32-44.

Abstract: Chevrefoil, by juxtaposition in the Harley manuscript with Chaitivel and Eliduc, underscore the fragile and transitory nature of human love, which lovers can preserve only through the creation of text or within the inclusive context of divine love. (JHM).

McCauley, Barbara Lynne. 'Giraldus "Silvester" of Wales and His Prophetic History of Ireland: Merlin's Role in the Expugnatio Hibernica.' QetF 3.4 (Winter 1993): 431-62.

Abstract: The character of Merlin, like that of Morgan la Fée, has received paradoxical treatment in Arthurian tales. Like Morgan, who is both nun and witch, healer and betrayer of Arthur, Merlin has been presented both as benevolent advisor and evil genius, one who serves his king and country wisely and well, assisting in political decisions and even in the achievement of the Grail, or one who deliberately misleads Arthur and his knights so as to bring down the kingdom and who causes his own demise by wallowing in his unsatisfied lust for the lady Nimue. Unlike Morgan, however, Merlin, along with Arthur and Mordred, enjoys outside the romances a quasi-historical status in the British Isles. Of course, the question of whether Merlin, or, for that matter, Arthur, really existed is irresolvable. One either believes the early documents that mention them, or one believes that their absence from other early documents proves that they are fictitious. Merlin's literary life grew out of a traditional life that preceded it among the Welsh. Merlin was held among them to be an awenddyon, a seer, and prophet, rather than a magician allied with Satan, and the perception of him as evil was probably a Norman political invention and one which was not necessarily adopted by unbiased contemporary or subsequent purveyors of the legend. Giraldus Cambrensis wished to restore Merlin's 'rightful' reputation and use it to serve his cause of Welsh ecclesiastical and eventually political independence. Giraldus attempted to do that in his books about Wales and Ireland, and especially in the Expugnatio, which he himself called throughout his life the Prophetic History of Ireland. (BLM)

McClune, Kate. Rev. of The Knightly Tale of Golagros and Gawane. By Ralph Hanna. Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010):124.

McConnell, Winder. 'The Denial of the Anima in Parzival.' QetF 2.2 (Summer 1992): 28-40.

Abstract: Both Gawan and Parzival are intimately involved with a process of transformation within society, but it is only Parzival who appears to acquire some understanding of the great significance of his actions. The same cannot be said of Gawan. He is an agent of the process, but not one who ever gives a clear indication that he understands what is actually transpiring on a higher level. Nonetheless, without Gawan's liberation of the women (and men) of Schastel marveile, the reintegration of the feminine element within courtly society could scarcely have taken place. At the conclusion of Parzival, the accent is on union and reunion, wholeness, the reconciliation of opposites, and of paramount significance in this regard is the reintegration of the feminine element into society as underscored by both the individual marriages and the collective return of the prisoners of Clinschor's castle. (WM)

McCracken, Peggy. 'Mothers in the Grail Quest: Desire, Pleasure, and Conception.' Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 35-48.

Abstract: This essay explores the ambivalent representation of second-generation mothers in the Grail Quest and proposes that representations of sexually active widows, chaste mothers, and desiring virgins in the Prose Lancelot suggest the difficult combination of chivalric quest and Christian values in courtly romance. (PC)

------. 'Love and War in Cligés.Arthuriana 18.3 (Fall 2008): 6-19

Abstract: In the first part of Cligés, the intercalcalated stories of love and war suggest that each is articulated through the other. (PC)

------.Rev. of Perfoming Medieval Narrative. Evelyn Birge Vitz, Nancy Freedman Regalado, and Marilyn Lawrence, eds. Arthuriana 16.4 (Winter 2006): 114-115.

McDonald, William C. 'Wolfram's Grail.' Arthuriana 8.1 (Spring 1998): 22-34.

Abstract: Although the Parzival of Wolfram von Eschenbach (c. 1210) borrows extensively from Chrétien's Percival, the German poet and narrator vigorously denies it. Wolfram further asserts his independence from the Chrétien through literary style, rhetorical devices, irony and humour. (WCMcD)

McGrady, Deborah. Rev. of Christine de Pizan and Medieval French Lyric. Ed. Earl Jeffrey Richards. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 148-50.

McGuiness, Daniel. 'Purple Hearts and Coronets: Caring for Wounds in Malory.' AInt 4.1 (Fall 1989): 43-54.

Abstract: In the Morte Darthur, the word 'wound' occurs in some form two hundred and eighty seven times. The nature, location, and quality of a wound seem less important to Malory's purposes than the means by which it is cured. The most germane cures, in a work so religious, would be miraculous, of course; yet the human ministrations are significant considerations. Human doctorings fall in several rough categories: one, the attentions of ladies; two, the care of religious; and three, the expertise of authentic medical personnel. A fourth category could be made up of self- help and peer care by knights for their own wounds and those of their comrades, but these are less clearly 'healers.' (DM)

McInerney, Maud Burnett. Rev. of Power of the Weak: Studies on Medieval Women. Ed. Jennifer Carpenter and Sally-Beth MacLean. Arthuriana 7.1 (Spring 1997): 147-49.

-------. Rev. of Violence Against Women in Medieval Texts. Ed. Anna Roberts. Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999) 159-60.

-------. 'Introduction: Teaching Arthurian Materials.' Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 3-5.

McKenna, Catherine AThe Arthur of the Welsh: The Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature. Ed. Rachel Bromwich, A.O.H. Jarman, and Brynley F. Roberts. Arthuriana 6.3 (Fall 1996): 82-83.

McLaughlin, John. Rev. of The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland. By Roy James Goldstein. Arthuriana 4.3 (Fall 1994): 288-90.

McQuillen, John. Rev. of Codices Keionenses: Essays on Western Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Keio University Library. Ed.Takami Matsuda. Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 72-73.

Mcrae, Joan E.. Rev. of Discourse for the Holy Grail in Old French Romance. Ed. Ben Ramm. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 111-113.

Mdluli, Sibusiso Hyacinth. 'Thrice Three: Trifunctional Structure in the Third Fitt of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.' Arthuriana 4.2. (Summer 1994): 184-95.

Abstract: Georges Dumézil’s approach to the study of myths provides fruitful insights into the trifunctional structure of the third fitt of SGGK, where the influence of Indo-European structures can be discerned in the episode of the hero's temptation. (SHM)

Medeiros Mongeli, Lênia Márcia de 'An Unorthodox Reading of A Demanda do Santo Graal.' AInt 3.1 (Fall 1988): 16-24.

Abstract: A Demanda do Santo Graal, an early Christianized version of the Grail Quest, is unique in its assimilation of the Celtic elements as well as its sanctification of King Arthur's pagan court. Galahad's quest is a model of the purgative, solitary, and contemplative life which the Church advocated for the guidance of souls. Yet the disparate story elements involving the other questers continue to be in conflict, more Manichean than Christian in effect. (MLD)

Megale, Heitor. 'In Search of the Narrative Structure of A Demanda do Santo Graal.' AInt 1.1 (Fall 1986): 26-34.

Abstract: Much scholarly attention has been devoted to the extremely puzzling narrative structure of A Demanda do Santo Graal, where the terrestrial life of the kingdom is developed simultaneously with the mystic search for the Grail. The structure of the general episodes reveals a device which has a dialectical function in the narrative. Generally speaking, each of nine broad episodes has its own protagonist frequently in opposition to another knight, although the latter may not always be an antagonist; sometimes, the opposition is revealed in psychological aspects. In other episodes, the collective action of the knights eliminates the previous criterion. This structure allows us to see the component elements in a control system which gradually disappears. A Demanda do Santo Graal, then, superimposes in three movements in the same narrative the following three elements: the Quest, or the meeting of the knights of the kingdom, their separation and the revelation of the elect; the history of the kingdom, or its establishment, its development, and its destruction; and the reality of the world, or the organization of society, the fulfillment of human life, and the end of existence. (MLD)

Meister, Peter. 'Arthurian Literature as a Distorted Model of Christianity.' QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 32-43.

Abstract: Courtly literature as a 'cultural dream' which explored orthodox Christianity in a systematic way is not the only possible way of approaching Arthurian literature. One of the fascinating things about a dream is how many complete tales it can tell at once. Arthurian literature is fully capable of corresponding in a complete and satisfying way with Christianity-- while corresponding just as systematically with the Welsh pantheon alone, or with the Welsh in conjunction with classical Latin and Greek lore. (PM)

-------. 'A Little Acknowledged Theme in the Courtly Romance: Rape.' QetF 1.4 (Winter 1991): 23-35.

Abstract: Rape becomes especially plausible as an implicit motif in the main plot of Wolfram's Parzival when we notice explicit reference to the theme in every main episode in that work's subordinate plot. The relationship between the major (conscious) and minor (unconscious) plots seems completely opaque until looked at in terms of sexual violence (which has been 'banished' to the minor, or unconscious, or Gawein plot). Most episodes in courtly literature are concerned with either sex or violence. Understatement governs courtly treatment of the former, overstatement governs with regard to the latter. When the two interests combine, reservations regarding sexuality remain in force and cause this particular kind of violence to be understated. Since other kinds of medieval violence are usually overstated, courtly sexual violence is particularly well disguised by understatement. Minnedienst--winning a lady's love by submitting entirely to her will--is the acknowledged key to the Arthurian romance. In Wolfram's Parzival and Hartmann's Erec, this melody in the treble clef is usually accompanied by unacknowledged discord in the bass: rape--winning a lady's love by forcing her to submit to the knight's will. The plots in other examples of the genre may well be similarly out of tune. (PM)

Meuwese, Martine . 'The Animation of Marginal Decorations in Monty Python and the Holy Grail.' Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 45-58.

Abstract: The animated interludes in the film Monty Python and the Holy Grail demonstrate director and animator Terry Gilliam’s interest in and use of images in the margins of Gothic manuscripts. (MM)

Mews, Constant. Rev. of Medieval Exegsis. Vol. I: The Four Senses of Scripture. By Henry de Lubac. Trans. Mark Sebanc. Arthuriana 9.2 (Summer 1999): 59-60.

Mieszkowski, Gretchen. 'The Prose Lancelot's Galehot, Malory's Lavin, and the Queering of Late Medieval Literature.' Arthuriana 5.1 (Spring 1995): 21-51.

Abstract: This article adds two Arthurian characterizations to Queer Criticism's emerging analysis of homoeroticism in late medieval literature: Galehot, from the 13th-century Prose Lancelot, and Malory's Lavain, from the story of Elaine le Blanke, the Fair Maid of Astolat. Both are altogether anomalous figures for the virulently homophobic late Middle Ages: positively represented men who love other men; and Galehot is one of the great homoerotic portraits of medieval literature. (GM)

Miles, Brent. ''Lyouns Full Lothely': Dream Interpretation and Boethian Denaturing in the Alliterative Morte Arthure. ' Arthuriana 18.1 (Spring 2008): 41-62.

Abstract: The Boethian use of animals to depict human degeneration through sin features in Arthurís two dreams. Arthur fails to interpret these dreams as signifying the loss of his true nature and of his kingdom. (BM)

Miller, Barbara D. 'The Spanish 'Viviens' of El baladro del sabio Merlin and Benjamin Jarnes's Viviana y Merlin: From Femme Fatale to FemmeVitale.' Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 82-93.

Abstract: in the castilian post-Vulgate romance, El baladro del sabio Merlin, Merlin's lust for the lady of the Lake fundamentally diminishes the enchanter by impairing his prophetic capacity. But the reversal of Vivien's function in Benjamin Jarnes's experimental novel, Viviana y Merlin, shows at least one Arthurian personage to be less predictable across the ages.(BDM).

-------. Rev. of In a Pig's Ear: A Novel By Paul Bryars. Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 156-57.

-------. Rev. of The Endless Text: Don Quixote and the Hermeunitics of Romance. By Edward Dudley. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 119-120.

-------. Rev. of Clio, Eros, Thanatos: The 'Novela sentimental' in Context. By Theresa Ann Sears. Arthuriana 14.1 (Spring 2004): 116-117.

-------. Rev. of  Cuaderno de Camelot: Cultura, Literatura y Traducción Artúrica[Camelot Notebook: Arthurian Culture, Literature and Translation]. By Juan Miguel Zarandona. Arthuriana 19.4 (Winter 2009): 78-79.

-------. Rev. of Los Ecos de las Montañas de José Zorilla y sus Fuentes de Inspiración: De Tennyson a Doré. [The Ecos of the Mountains of José Zorilla and His Sources of Inspiration: From Tennyson to Doré.]. By Juan Miguel Zarandona. Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010).

-------. Rev. of La Recepción de Alfred Lord Tennyson en España: Traductores y Traducciones Artúricas. By Juan Miguel Zarandona. Arthuriana 20.3 (Fall 2010): 132-33.

Miller, David R. 'Sir Thomas Malory's A Noble Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake Reconsidered.' QetF 1.1 (Spring 1991): 25-43.

Abstract: Vinaver's theory that the Winchester ms. provides evidence that Malory wrote not one, but eight distinct romances can be examined with specific reference to A Noble Tale of Sir Launcelot du Lake. This study demonstrates that Launcelot is a unified work of literature, independent of the rest of Malory's works, and that its structure reflects Malory's distillation and elaboration of a theme common in Arthurian literature, the testing of the hero on ethical as well as physical grounds. (DRM)

Mitsch, Ruthmarie H. 'The Other Isolde.' QetF 3.2 (Summer 1993): 45-55.

Abstract: Although Isolde of the White Hands is essential in Thomas and is included in many renditions of the story of Tristan and Isolde, she has nevertheless been frequently omitted or glossed over in other prominent redactions of the Tristan story. When she has been included, she has sometimes been portrayed as the pathetic, wronged wife; other times, she is a cruel, avenging harridan. A look at the various roles she plays can tell us much about limitations imposed on human, specifically female potential. (RHM)

-------. Rev. of Brazil. By John Updike. Arthuriana 4.2 (Summer 1994): 200-01.

-------. Rev. of Ennobling Love: In Search of a Lost Sensibility. By C. Stephen Jaeger . Arthuriana 10.2 (Summer 2000): 106-107.

Moll, Richard J. Rev. of Lancelot-Grail: The Old French Arthurian Vulgate 
and Post-Vulgate in Translation. Ed. Norris J. Lacy. Arthuriana 4.3 (Fall 1994): 282-84.

-------. Rev. of Am Bròn Binn: An Arthurian Ballad in Scottish Gaelic. By Linda Gowans. Arthuriana 5.1 (Autumn 1995): 100-102.

-------. Rev. of Medievla Balladry and the Courtly Tradition: Literature of Re.olt and Assimulation. By Gwendolyn A. Morgan. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 98-101.

-------. Rev. of Text and Intertext in Medieval Arthurian Literature. Ed. Norris J. Lacy. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 145-46.

-------. Rev. of Robert Mannyng of Brunne: The Chronicle. Ed. Idelle Sullens. Arthuriana 8.1(Spring 1998): 92-93.

-------. "Ebrauke and the Politics of Arthurian Geography." [The Round Table] Arthuriana 15.4 (Winter 2005): 65-71.

-------. Rev. of The Oldest Anglo-Norman Prose Brut Chronicle: An Edition and Translation. By Julia Marvin, ed. & trans. Arthuriana 17.3 (Fall 2007): 106-107.

Mongan, Olga Burakov. 'Between Knights: Triangular Desire and Sir Palomides in Sir Thomas Malory's The Book of Sir Tristram de Lyones.' Arthuriana 12.4 (Winter 2002): 74-89.

Abstract: In The Book of Sir Tristram de Lyones the male-male relationship of the rivals in an erotic triangle surpasses in its intensity the heterosexual bond that ties the two knights to the beloved. (OBM)

Montgomery, Catherine J. 'The Dialectical Approach of Writers of Children's Arthurian Retellings.' AInt 3.1 (Fall 1988): 79-88.

Abstract: Sychronic-diachronic dialectology, as applied to the children's texts of Sidney Lanier (1880), Alice Hadfield (1953), and Rosemary Sutcliff (1981), allows for individual consideration of each text and for the examination of the historical change which occurs in the genre of Arthurian retellings for juvenile readers over time. A close reading of children's Arthurian literature produces a diachronic view of the legend as its authors seek to define and to limit the linguistic and the cultural contexts for their audience. This shows the subtle and the not so subtle ways adult literature is excluded by or assimilated into literature for children. (MLD)

Moore, James A. Rev. of The Anglo-Saxon Warrior Ethic: Reconstructing Lordship in Early English Literature. By John H. Hill. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 118-20.

Moorman, Charles. Rev. of Arthurian Poets: Charles Williams. Ed. David Llewellyn Dodds. Arthurian Studies XXIV. QetF 2.2 (Summer 1992): 89-91.

----------. 'Desperately Defending Winchester: Arguments from the Edge.' Arthuriana 5.2 (Summer 1995): 24-30.

Abstract: Caxton's Le Morte Darthur represents Malory's own revision—Malory’s own ‘second edition’—of the text represented in the Winchester manuscript. (MNS)

Moran, Virginia. 'Malory/Guenevere: Sexuality as Deconstruction.' QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 70-77.

Abstract: What Malory sets out to do in changing his source material is to make the ideal of loyalty and patriotism compelling, but what he does inadvertently is to recall an essentially pagan celebration of love and sexuality through Guenevere's voice in such a way that it must forcibly be controlled but nevertheless leaves its trace. His recipe for an ending has been a sure- fire hit with many guests but one perhaps lacking in the spice of variety and contradiction. (VM)

Moranski, Karen R. 'The Prophetie Merlini, Animal Symbolism, and the Development of Political Prophesy in Late Medieval Scotland.' Arthuriana 8.4 (Winter 1998): 58-68.

Abstract: Geoffrey of Monmouth's Prophetie Merlini influenced the writers of late medieval political prophecy by demonstrating how animal symbolism could add obscurity and flexibility to prophetic discourse. (KRM)

Morey, James H. 'Torec, Cosmic Energy, and Pragmatism.' Arthuriana 17.1 (Spring 2007): 32-41.

Abstract: The recirculation of cosmic energy between the worlds of fairies and mortals defines the adventures of the hero in the Middle Dutch Torec.  A comparison with Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queene reveals the logic of how characters are named and how contact with the fairy world is gradually lost, even as Torec grows in wisdom and love. (JHM)

Morris, Megan L. '‘Recalled to Life’: King Arthur’s Return and the Body of the Past in Nineteenth-Century England. ' Arthuriana 21.2 (Summer 2011): 5-27.

Abstract: Nineteenth-century legends of King Arthur’s survival and return demonstrate Victorian historiography’s preoccupation with the body’s role as an active agent of history. Victorian preoccupation with the reproduction of Arthur’s body reflects a corporeally-centered aesthetic of history that blurs the distinctions between history and literature, fact and imagination. (MLM)

Morse, Ruth. 'Sterile Queens and Questing Orphans.' QetF 2.2 (Summer 1992): 41-53.

Abstract: Far from Camelot being the history of a society isolated from medieval concerns with familiar and dynastic continuity, two apparently different kinds of episode point to similar implicit concerns. Male Unknowns seek their fathers, and with that paternal recognition which should establish them in Camelot they help to bring it down, for the loyalties consistent with kinship cannot force their actions. The two childless queens, Guenevere and Isode, who ought to provide a courteous focus for loyalty to their husbands, in default of providing an heir, similarly bring a dynasty to an end. The two stories combine to create a narrative of injury and revenge, in which the whole ruin of Arthur's kingdom functions to restore to a dead Duke of Cornwall all that Arthur's father once took away. In an odd way, the end of the tale is the success of Gorlois's daughters' husbands, of Gorlois's revenge for the theft of his wife: the unification of Britain under Constantine which follows Arthur's death is possible only because neither Arthur, nor Mark, nor Gorlois of Cornwall had a male heir of his body. In an even odder way, the doubled sterility of Guenevere and Isode succeeds where their husbands failed, for there are no aristocratic rebels left. (RM)

----------. 'Back to the Future: Malory's Genres.' Arthuriana 7.3 (Fall 1997): 100-123.

Abstract: This article reconsiders the narrative categories of Malory's book within the umbrella of 'historia,' arguing that while the reader is invited to take the account seriously as historical, that invitation occurs in a reading culture which requires us to recognize a medieval, rhetorically-derived, genre. (RM)

Mosser, Daniel W. Rev. of Writing after Chaucer: Essential Readings in Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. Ed. Daniel J. Pinti. Arthuriana 10.1 (Spring 2000): 146-48.

Muckerheide, Ryan. 'The English Law of Treason in Malory’s Le Morte Darthur. ' Arthuriana 20.4 (Winter 2010): 48-77.

Abstract: Malory’s depictions of treason, especially in the ‘Poisoned Apple’ episode,are informed by authentic, if somewhat outdated, legal practice. (RM)

Muench, James F. [Short Story] 'Arthur.' AInt 4.1 (Fall 1989): 86-102.

Mueller, Alex. Rev. of The Cambridge Companion to the Arthurian Legend. By Elizabeth Archibald and Ad Putter. Arthuriana 21.1 (Spring 2011): 111-12.

Mullaney, SamanthaChivalric Fiction and the History of the Novel. By Caroline A. Jewers. Arthuriana 11.3 (Fall 2001): 129-130.

Müller, Ulrich. Rev. of The Grail Procession. The Legend, the Artifacts, and the Possible Sources of the Story. By Justin E Griffin. Arthuriana 16.2 (Summer 2006): 102-103.

Murray, Jacqueline. Rev. of Queering the Middle Ages. Glenn Burger and Steven F. Kruger, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 118-120.

Murray, Susan E. 'Women and Castles in Geoffrey of Monmouth and Malory.' Arthuriana 13.1 (Spring 2003): 17-41.

Abstract: Medieval authors negotiated comparative meanings for the women and castles of their texts; this expression became an important metaphor for representing the condition of Arthurian society.(SEM)

Murrin, Michael. 'Spenser and the Search for Asian Silk. ' Arthuriana 21.1 (Spring 2011): 7-19.

Abstract: Edmund Spenser’s Faerie Queene follows the Arthurian tradition of travel eastward. Because the poem distributes its narrative onto a scene of action that forms part of the Muscovy Company’s activities in Central Asia in the 1560s, The Faerie Queene can be understood as a literary response to a new kind of commercial risk. (MM)

Nagy, Gergely. Rev. of Absent Narratives, Manuscript Textuality, and Literary Structure in Late Medieval England. By Elizabeth Scala. Arthuriana 14.3 (Fall 2004): 106-107.

-------. 'A Fool of a Knight, a Knight of a Fool: Malory’s Comic Knights.' Arthuriana 14.4 (Winter 2004): 59-74.

Abstract: The examination of three predominantly comic knights in Malory’s Morte Darthur shows that the ‘comic discourse’ reinforces––rather than subverts––the serious ‘heroic/tragic discourse’ of the book. (GN)

Nastali, Dan. 'Arthur Without Fantasy: Dark Age Britain in Recent Historical Fiction.' Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 5-22.

Abstract: Only recent Arthurian stories accomplished the difficult task of creating a plausible fifth/sixth-century Britain, of incorporating at least some of the basic elements of the Arthurian tradition, and of managing to tell a good story while producing yet another variation on some well-worn themes. (DN)

-------. Rev. of A Life of Merlin. By John Gohorry. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 114-16.

-------. 'Searching for Arthur: Literary Highways, Electronic Byways, and Cultural Back Roads.' Arthuriana 11.4 (Winter 2001): 108-122.

Abstract: The Arthurian Annals project has been a fifteen-year effort to document the Arthurian tradition in English from the beginning of the fifteenth century through the year 2000. Including but extending far beyond familiar literary works, the Annals demonstrate that the vitality of the legend resides as much in the products of popular culture as in the great works of Arthurian literature. The research employed is described as well as some lessons learned about the transmission of the tradition. (DN and PB)

-------. Rev. of The Artuhurian Bibliography: III 1978-1992. By Caroline Palmer, compiler. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 147-149.

Neaman, Judith S. 'Romanticizing the Past: Stasis and Motion in Yvain and Vézelay.' Arthuriana 4.3 (Fall 1994): 250-70.

Abstract: This comparison of such superficially different works as Vézelay's narthex tympanum and Chrétien de Troyes's Yvain focuses our attention on such similar iconographic and thematic content as their arcing structures and explorations of narrative. A sensory approach to the tympanum and the romance reveals some fundamental structures and concerns that typify Romanseque thought. (JSN)

----------. Rev. of Mental Representation Theory in Old French Allegory from the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. By Katherine G. MacCormack. Arthuriana 7.2 (Summer 1997): 142-43.

[Neuendorf], Fiona Tolhurst. 'Negotiating Feminist and Historicist Concerns: Guinevere in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.' QetF 3.2 Summer 1993): 26-44.

Abstract: Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae has long claimed a justly central place in the historiography of the medieval Arthurian legend. Yet its explicitly historical genre has, perhaps, limited our understanding of the work's artistic scope. Upon close examination, the work reveals two related aspects that have largely been ignored by earlier commentary. In the first place, Geoffrey owes a clear debt to anterior poetical tradition, specifically that of Virgil's Aeneid. Futhermore, it seems likely that Geoffrey uses his Virgilian model in a fashion that must draw attention to the question of the social and literary roles of women in his Historia. Integrated historicist and feminist concerns broaden the range of critical discourse in general and, more specifically, broaden the currently limited definitions of women's roles at Arthur's court. Geoffrey combines Virgilian epic and pastoral elements in his Historia, with the results that he models himself as an author on Virgil and models his Guenevere both on Virgil's Dido and on twelfth-century England's Empress Matilda. (FTN)

Neufeld, Christine. Rev. of Constructions of Widowhood and Virginity in the Middle Ages . By Cindy L. Carlson and Angela Jane Weisl, eds. Arthuriana 12.3 (Fall 2002): 120-122.

-------. Rev. of The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women's Writing. Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace, eds. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 89-90.

Newhauser, Richard. Rev. of Medieval Exegesis in Translation: Commentaries on the Book of Ruth. By Lesley Smith. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 84-85.

Nickel, Helmut. 'The Fight about King Arthur's Beard and for the Cloak of Kings' Beards.' AInt 16.1 (Fall 1985): 1-7.

Abstract: Of the two battles which King Arthur fights with giants, the one against the owner of the cloak trimmed with kings' beards (Retho, Riton) is originally just a flashback linked to the fight on St. Michael's Mount, as told by Geoffrey and his follower Wace. Malory divides the two linked stories into separate tales and leaves one beard-trimmed cloak with King Royns, who now, though no more a giant, is in his proper chronological sequence, and gives the other 'mantell' to the Giant of St. Michael's Mount, who always was a fiendish rapist/cannibal, but became connected with the cloak of beards only in the Alliterative Morte Arthure. (HN)

-------. 'Why Was the Green Knight Green?' AInt 2.2 (Spring 1988): 58-64.

Abstract: On his quest for the Green Chapel, Sir Gawain encounters manifold dangers from dragons, wolves, bulls, bears, and other denizens of the wild, including wodewose (wildmen). These, however, are the real wildmen of the woods; by contrast, Sir Bertilak assumes his guise only temporarily. This corresponds with a wildman episode in the Vulgate Merlin, when Merlin--who loved to act the shape-shifter--enters the emperor's court first as a wild stag and, later, as a wildman who prophetically unmasks the infidelity of the empress. In this episode of the temporary wildman on a mission to embarrass a ruler's court and his wife there is probably inspiration for the appearance of the Green Knight at Arthur's court. From what seems to have been a disappointingly simple misunderstanding of a French prototype, the Gawain-poet's power of imagination and skill as a wordwright created the awesome image of the Green Knight on his green charger riding into King Arthur's hall to challenge the flower of chivalry. The green results from misreading French vair 'fur' as vert 'green' in French romances. (HN)

-------. 'About Palug's Cat and the Mosaic of Otranto.' AInt 3.2 (Spring 1989): 96-105.

Abstract: Among the earliest surviving pictorial representations of King Arthur is a strange figural scene laid out in the mosaic floor of the Cathedral of Otranto. This floor mosaic is a sprawling composition, extending for more than two hundred feet through the entire length of the nave, into the transepts and around the cathedral's apse. Between the Expulsion from the Garden of Eden and the Story of Cain and Abel, there is a crowned figure holding a ball-headed club or scepter and riding a horned animal. Confronting Arthur is a large spotted feline, and directly below the hind feet of Arthur's mount is a secondary scene showing the feline mauling a man lying on the ground. This double scene is believed to represent the Fight with the Chapalu or Palug's Cat. (HN)

-------. 'About Lace and Knot in Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight.' QetF 1.1 (Spring 1991): 15-23.

Abstract: With the choice of the I ndeles knot' as Gawayne's badge, the Gawain-poet created an image that counterpointed the knotted Green Lace, which for his knightly audience called to mind the (for them) presumably well-known Order of the Band and Order of the Knot with their presumably equally well-known Arthurian inspirations. (HN)

-------. 'Surviving Camlann.' QetF 3.1 (Spring 1993): 32-37.

Abstract: As is the case with practically all Arthurian 'facts' and sites, there is very little agreement about Arthur's last battle among the chroniclers and the poets dealing with the Matter of Britain. For the battle site, places as far apart as the river Camel in Cornwall and the Roman fort Camboglanna at Hadrian's Wall have been suggested, and there is similar disagreement among Arthurian authors about who did survive the slaughter. (HN)

-------. 'Notes on Arthurian Heraldry: The Retroactive System in the "Armagnac" Armorial.' QetF 3.3 (Fall 1993): 1-23.

Abstract: The imaginary arms of Arthurian heraldry were codified by the roll of arms thought to have been compiled ca. 1440-50 for and possibly even by Jacques d'Armagnac, duc de Nemours. Among the one hundred and seventy-odd Knights of the Round Table listed in the 'Armagnac' armorial there are twelve family groups that extend over two generations or more. The best known group is the Orkney clan of King Lot and his sons, Sir Gawain and his brothers. This clan is also of special interest because two entirely different sets of arms have been assigned to the princes of Orkney at different times. It is interesting to see that the early fifteenth-century heraldic handbook, Traité de blason, by Clément Prinsault, dedicated to Jacques d'Armagnac is illustrated by seventy shields as examples for blazoning, and practically all of these have been used either directly or in adaptations as models for the arms in the 'Armagnac' armorial. (HN)

-------. 'The King's Arms, The Queen's Legs, and The Cat's Miau: About Humor and Satire in Arthurian Heraldry.' QetF 3.4 (Winter 1993): 28-40.

Abstract: There is a hoary heraldists' joke that says that everyone knows the King's Arms, but nobody ever saw the Queen's Legs. Arthurian heraldry has a superabundance of king's arms, but the leg of a noble, even royal lady can be perceived too, if the story of the origin of the Most Noble Order of the Garter is to be believed. Where reality and fantasy intermingle, such as in the pageantry of the tournament or the extravaganzas of romance, funny, piquant, and even frivolous badges and devises can be expected almost as a matter of course. (HN)

-------. 'About Arthurian Armings, for War and for Love.' Arthuriana 5.4 (Winter 1995): 3-21.

Abstract: Literary descriptions of arms and armor in arming scenes vary according to their separate arming purposes: for war, for courtly service to a lady, for spiritual quest, and for indulgence in courtly follies. (LFH)

-------. Rev. of The Military Orders, from the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries. By Alan Forey. Arthuriana 6.2 (Summer 1996): 105-107.

-------. 'About a Crown Found and a Tournament Held at the "Castle of Maidens,"' Arthuriana 7.3 (Fall 1997): 36-44.

Abstract: An archaeological find made in 1955 at Magdeburg in Northern Germany is possibly linked to 'one of the oddest tournament stories' (Barber and Barker 56), the famous tournament with an Arthurian theme that was held at this Saxon city in 1279. (HN)

-------. Rev. of Rolls of Arms-Edward I (1272-1307) By Gerard J. Brault. Arthuriana 8.2 (Summer 1998): 147-50.

-------. 'The Naked and the Best: Tests, Temptations, and triumphal rescues,' Arthuriana 9.3 (Fall 1999): 81-96.

Abstract: 'The Best'--either 'the Best knight in the World'or 'the truest Lady'--is at times decided by bizarre tests with scurrilous elements. The examples here treated feature nakedness of victims, of agents provocateurs, and also of 'the best knights' of 'the Truest Ladies' themselves. (HN).

-------. 'A Pictorial Source For the Grail Maiden?' [The Round Table] Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 61-64.

-------. 'About the Saxon Rebellion and the Massacre at Amesbury' [The Round Table] Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 65-70.

-------. 'About the Knight with Two Swords and the Maiden under a Tree.' Arthuriana 17.4 (Fall 2007): 29-48.

Abstract: A good story is a good story, no matter which language it is told in. Tracing a set of seemingly irrelevant story motifs associated to the main motif of the hero with two swords can lead to the ‘Ur–Epos’ of the Eurasian continent as the common source. (HN)

Nievergelt, Marco. 'Introduction: The Alliterative Morte Arthure in Context.' Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010): 3-4.

------.'Conquest, Crusade and Pilgrimage: The Alliterative Morte Arthure in its Late Ricardian Crusading Context.' Arthuriana 20.2 (Summer 2010): 89-116.


Abstract: This article explores the poem’s problematic use of holy war rhetoric, arguing for an engagement with contemporary debates on the transformation, revival and decline of the crusading ideal within the framework of the Papal Schism and the Hundred Years War. More specifically I suggest that through its skillful use of religious vocabulary the poem highlights the manipulative potential of the language of holy war, and in doing so asks the reader to reflect critically on the crusading revival under Richard II. Yet rather than merely denouncing the simple appropriation of religious language to justify a continued war of conquest, the poem stresses the potential for a genuine blurring of motives—political, spiritual, economic, imperialistic, self-glorifying—which may ultimately result in the pursuit of those delirious messianic ambitions that the poem’s Arthur seems to share with Richard II. (MN)

Noble, James. 'The Grail and Its Guardian: Evidence of Authorial Intent in the Middle English Joseph of Arimathea.' QetF 1.2 (Summer 1991): 1-14.

Abstract: A comparison with the Estoire would seem to leave little doubt that the author of Joseph of Arimathea was intent upon transforming the grail romance which he had taken as his source into a didactic saint's life about Joseph. Inviting us to arrive at such a conclusion with respect to the genre of the poem are (1)the perfunctory and decidedly unromantic treatment accorded to the grail, (2)the poet's efforts to make Joseph, as opposed to the romance hero Josaphe, the figure of principal interest in the work, and (3)the fact that, upon a closer inspection than they have hitherto been afforded, the so-called romantic elements in the poem emerge as elements entirely befitting a saint's legend intended to illustrate the fundamental tenets of the Christian faith, the benefits enjoyed by those who accept that faith, and the consequences suffered by those who are foolish enough to reject it. (JN)

-------. Rev. of The Romance of Merlin: An Anthology. Ed. Peter Goodrich. QetF 2.1 (Spring 1992): 99-102.

-------. Rev. of Arthurian Poets: Matthew Arnold and William Morris; Arthurian Poets: Algernon Charles Swinburne; Arthurian Poets: Edwin Arlington Robinson. Ed. James P. Carley. QetF 2.1 (Spring 1992): 102-04.

Noble, Peter. 'Arthur, Anti-Fascist or Pirate King?' QetF 3.3 (Fall 1993): 46-54.

Abstract: John Masefield had two periods in his career when he was inspired by the Arthurian legend and wrote about Arthur; the late 1920s when he produced his collection of Arthurian poems,Midsummer Night and Other Tales in Verse, and the period just after the Second World War, when he wrote Badon Parchments, a novel taking as its theme the struggle of the Britons against the Saxons but linking it to the theme of the Eastern Empire and Byzantium which he had used in two novels published in 1940 and 1941, Basilissa and Conquer. The figure of Arthur is portrayed in completely different ways in the two works but in Midsummer Night there is a certain ambiguity about the portrayal which deserves closer consideration. (PN)

Noble, Thomas F.X. Rev. of Negotiating Space: Power, Restraint, and Privileges of Immunity in Early Medieval Europe. By Barbara Rosenwein. Arthuriana 11.1 (Spring 2001): 128-30.

Nohrnberg, James C. 'The Mythical Method in Song, Saga, Prose and Verse: Part One. ' Arthuriana 21.1 (Spring 2011): 20-38.

Abstract: T.S. Eliot’s ‘mythical method’ is a publishing author’s practice of taking an ancient or received story as the organizing principle for a self-standing and contemporary narrative. Joyce’s use of Ulysses is an example. Homer’s epic had a long history of exegesis, including serving as one of the sources of Milton’s Satan in Paradise Lost. (JCN)

Noguchi, Shunichi. 'The Winchester Malory.' Arthuriana 5.2 (Summer 1995): 15-23.

Abstract: 'Caxtonian diction' and the similar linguistic traces in the Roman War episode suggest that Caxton is responsible for the differences between the Winchester and Caxton versions of Le Morte Darthur. (MNS)

Norris, Ralph. 'The Tragedy Of Balin: Malory's Use of the Balin Story in the Morte Darthur.'Arthuriana 9.3 (Fall 1999): 52-61.

Abstract: Malory severs many of the causal links between Balin's story and the Grail Quest that exist in the Suite du Marlin, transforming Balin from an anti-Galahad to a tragic hero. (RN)

-------. 'Sir Thomas Malory and The Weding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell Reconsidered' Arthuriana19.2 (Summer 2009): 82-102.

Abstract: Malory’s Morte Darthur and the anonymous The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell have several sources in common and make similar use of those sources. This information supports P.J.C. Field’s conclusion that Malory is also the author of The Wedding. (RN)

Ohlren, Thomas H. (with Thomas E Kelly). 'The Bodleian Library Slide Collection at Purdue: Guides to Illustrated Prose Lancelot Manuscripts.' Arthuriana 19.4 (Winter 2009): 5-8.

Oram, Richard W. 'Foreword: T.H. White Holdings at the Harry Ransom Center.'Arthuriana 16.3 (Fall 2006): 3-4.

O'Shaughnessey, Margaret. 'Edwin Austin Abbey's Reinterpretation of the Grail Quest: The Boston Public Library Murals.' Arthuriana 4.4 (Winter 1994): 298-312.

Abstract: The fifteen panels painted by Abbey in the 1890s for the Boston Public Library were instrumental in increasing the popularity in America of both the Grail story and the figure of Sir Galahad. Abbey's pictorial narrative represented a new version of the Grail quest. In showing Galahad leaving his wife after their wedding, Abbey - like Tennyson in his influential 'Sir Galahad' - emphasized purity as the sine qua non of the successful quester. (MO'S)

Olton, Bert. Rev. of The Mighty. Dir. Peter Chelsom. Arthuriana 9.1 (Spring 1999): 165-167.

-------. Rev. of Lancelot: Guardian of Time. By Rubian Cruz. Arthuriana 10.2 (Summer 2000): 105-106.
Osberg, Richard H. Rev. of Fantasy, Fiction, and Welsh Myth: Tales of Belonging By Kath Filmer-Davis. Arthuriana 8.3 (Fall 1998): 118-120.

-------. Rev. of Chaucer: An Oxford Guide. ed. Steve Ellis. Arthuriana 16.1 (Spring 2006): 73-75.

Over, Kristen Lee. Rev. of Arthur in Medieval Welsh Literature. O.J. Padel. Arthuriana 14.2 (Summer 2004): 102-103.

-------. Rev. of Arthurian Literature XXI: Celtic Arthurian Material. Ceridwen Lloyd-Morgan, ed.. Arthuriana 15.3 (Fall 2005): 118-120.

Owen, Corey. 'Patient Lancelot and Impatient Gawain in the Queste del Saint Graal.' Arthuriana17.4 (Fall 2007): 3-28.

Abstract: Medieval patience traditions influenced the characterizations of Lancelot and Gawain in the Old French Queste del Saint Graal. The virtue of patience is important in the ethical system of the narrative. Endurance, the nature of suffering, and the relationship between patience and the passions inform the adventures of the two knights. (CO)

Abstracts Listed by author: A-F | G-J | K-O | P-W